Oracle 1Z0-986 : Oracle Inventory Cloud 2017 Implementation Essentials Exam
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Oracle Implementation test
automated acceptance checking out is fundamental in ultra-modern quickly-paced software birth world. a top quality set of automatic acceptance checks helps you convey positive aspects sooner via reducing the wasted time spent in manual trying out and fixing bugs. When combined with Behaviour-pushed building, automatic acceptance trying out can e-book and validate building effort, and support teams focus both on building the points that truly matter and making certain that they work.
however automated acceptance checking out isn't effortless; like some other application building endeavor, it requires skill, apply and self-discipline. Over time, even teams with the finest intent can see their examine suites develop into slow, fragile and unreliable. It turns into increasingly more complicated to add new checks to the current suite; teams lose self belief in the automatic tests, compromising the funding in the examine suite, and affecting group morale. They routinely see even skilled groups, the usage of design patterns similar to page Objects, operating into this type of concern. web page Objects are a good place to start for teams no longer everyday with patterns and design principles used via expert programmers (e.g. solid) but the value of bringing amazing technical competencies to the group should still be regarded early on in a venture to stay away from these challenges.
The Screenplay trial
(previously known as the event pattern) is the application of strong design principles to computerized acceptance checking out, and helps teams tackle these considerations. it's practically what would outcomes from the merciless refactoring of web page Objects using strong design concepts. It was first devised by means of Antony Marcano between 2007 - 2008, subtle with pondering from Andy Palmer from 2009. It didn’t obtain the name "the experience sample" unless Jan Molak all started working with it in 2013. a couple of people have written about it beneath this identify already, despite the fact, the authors now confer with it as the Screenplay pattern.
related subsidized content
The Screenplay trial
is an strategy to writing high best computerized acceptance tests according to decent utility engineering ideas such because the Single responsibility precept, and the Open-Closed principle. It favours composition over inheritance, and employs thinking from domain pushed Design to reflect the domain of performing acceptance assessments, steering you against the helpful use of layers of abstraction. It encourages respectable trying out habits and neatly-designed check suites which are handy to read, handy to retain and easy to extend, enabling groups to put in writing more potent and more official computerized tests greater without difficulty.
Serenity BDD is an open supply library designed to aid you write improved, extra constructive computerized acceptance assessments, and use these acceptance exams to supply excessive quality check reports and dwelling documentation. As they are able to see in this article, Serenity BDD has strong constructed-in guide for using the Screenplay trial
straight out of the box.
The Screenplay pattern in action
within the relaxation of this text, they may be the usage of Serenity BDD as an example the Screenplay pattern, notwithstanding the trial
itself is basically language and framework-agnostic. The utility they may be trying out is the AngularJS implementation of the usual TodoMVC undertaking (see figure 1).
determine 1 The Todo software
For simplicity, they should be using Serenity BDD with JUnit, although they may additionally choose to enforce their automatic acceptance criteria the use of Serenity BDD with Cucumber-JVM or JBehave.
Now consider we're enforcing the “Add new todo gadgets” feature. This characteristic could have an acceptance criterion alongside the traces of “Add a new todo item”. If they have been trying out these eventualities manually, it might look like this:
Add a brand new todo item
beginning with an empty todo list
Add an item called ‘buy some milk’
The ‘buy some milk’ merchandise should appear in the todo record
some of the large selling aspects of the Screenplay pattern is that it means that you can construct up a readable API of methods and objects to express your acceptance criteria in company terms. as an instance, the use of the Screenplay sample, they might automate the state of affairs shown above very naturally like this:
when(james).attemptsTo(AddATodoItem.known as("purchase some milk"));
then(james).should(seeThat(TheItems.displayed(), hasItem("buy some milk")));
when you have used Hamcrest matchers, this model can be common to you. once they use a Hamcrest matcher they are developing an instance of a matcher that could be evaluated in an assertThat method. in a similar fashion, AddATodoItem.known as() returns an instance of a ‘assignment’ it really is evaluated later within the attemptsTo() formulation. even if you aren't accepted with how this code is carried out below the hood, it would be fairly obvious what the test is trying to display, and how it goes about it.
we can see soon how scripting this sort of examine code is as effortless as studying it.
Declarative code written in a method that reads like company language is tremendously greater maintainable and less susceptible to error than code written in a extra essential, implementation-focused means. If the code reads like a description of the enterprise guidelines, it is a lot harder for mistakes in company logic to slide into the verify code or into the software code itself.
additionally, the examine experiences generated by means of Serenity for this verify additionally replicate this narrative constitution, making it easier for testers, business analysts and company individuals to remember what the checks are actually demonstrating in business phrases (see figure 2).
figure 2: This Serenity report documents each the intent and the implementation of the verify
The code listed above certainly reads cleanly, nevertheless it might also depart you wondering the way it in fact works under the hood. Let’s see how it all suits together.
assessments run like every other Serenity verify
on the time of writing, the Serenity Screenplay implementation integrates with both JUnit and Cucumber. for example, in JUnit, you employ the SerenityRunner JUnit runner, as for any other Serenity JUnit exams. the total source code of the look at various they noticed previous is shown here, where an “Actor” plays the role of a person interacting with the system:
public class AddNewTodos
Actor james = Actor.named("James");
@Managed inner most WebDriver hisBrowser;
public void jamesCanBrowseTheWeb()
public void should_be_able_to_add_a_todo_item()
when(james).attemptsTo(AddATodoItem.referred to as("buy some milk"));
hasItem("purchase some milk")));
It’s not complicated to glean what this test does just by means of studying
the code. There are besides the fact that children a few things here that may be unfamiliar, even if you have got used Serenity before. In the following sections, they will take a better seem to be on the details.
The Screenplay pattern encourages strong layers of abstraction
skilled computerized testers use layers of abstraction to separate the intent of the examine (what you try to achieve) from the implementation particulars (the way you achieve it). by means of keeping apart the what from the how, the intent from the implementation, layers of abstraction support make tests more straightforward to take into account and to hold. certainly, well defined layers of abstraction are perhaps the one most important aspect in writing excessive high-quality automated tests.
In user event (UX) Design, they spoil down the manner a consumer interacts with an software into desires, tasks and actions:
The goal describes the ‘why’ of the scenario in terms of what the user is making an attempt to obtain in enterprise phrases.
The tasks describe what the user will do as excessive-stage steps required to obtain this intention.
The actions say how a person interacts with the equipment to function a specific assignment, corresponding to through clicking on a button or coming into a price into a field.
As they will see, the Screenplay trial
gives a clear difference between goals (state of affairs titles), projects (right-degree of abstraction in the situation) and moves (the bottom degree of abstraction, beneath the tasks), which makes it less complicated for groups to write layered checks extra consistently.
The Screenplay trial
makes use of an actor-centric model
tests describe how a consumer interacts with the application to achieve a purpose. because of this, exams study plenty stronger in the event that they are presented from the factor of view of the person (in preference to from the aspect of ‘pages’).
within the Screenplay sample, they name a person interacting with the equipment an Actor. Actors are at the heart of the Screenplay pattern (see figure three). every actor has one or extra talents, such because the means to browse the web or to question a restful web provider. Actors can additionally perform projects corresponding to including an item to the Todo listing. To achieve these projects, they'll typically should have interaction with the software, corresponding to with the aid of getting into a value into a field or via clicking on a button. They name these interactions actions. Actors can additionally ask Questions about the state of the utility, reminiscent of through studying the value of a container on the screen or by using querying a web provider.
figure three: The Screenplay pattern uses an actor-centric mannequin
In Serenity, growing an actor is as simple as developing an example of the Actor type and presenting a name:
Actor james = Actor.named("James");
We find it beneficial to give the actors true names, as opposed to use a widespread one corresponding to “the consumer”. different names may also be a shorthand for distinct person roles or personas, and make the eventualities simpler to relate to. For extra advice on the use of Personas, see Jeff Patton’s speak “Pragmatic Personas”
Actors have capabilities
Actors deserve to be capable of do issues to function their assigned tasks. So they provide their actors “talents”, somewhat like the superpowers of a super-hero, if a little bit extra mundane. If here is a web check, for instance, they need James to be capable of browse the internet the usage of a browser.
Serenity BDD performs neatly with Selenium WebDriver, and is satisfied to manipulate the browser lifecycle for you. All you deserve to do is to use the @Managed annotation with a WebDriver member variable, as proven right here:
@Managed inner most WebDriver hisBrowser;
we are able to then let James use this browser as follows:
To make it clear that this is a precondition for the verify (and could very neatly go in a JUnit @before components), they will use the syntactic sugar formula givenThat():
every of the actor’s expertise is represented by means of an potential type (in this case BrowseTheWeb) that keeps tune of the issues the actor requires so as to perform this capacity (for instance, the WebDriver example used to have interaction with the browser). maintaining the things an actor can do (browse the net, invoke a web service…) break free the actor makes it less complicated to prolong the actor’s abilities. as an example, so as to add a brand new custom capacity, you simply should add a brand new capability type to your examine classes.
Actors operate tasks
An actor needs to perform a couple of tasks to obtain a business goal. a fairly commonplace instance of a role is “adding a todo merchandise”, which they might write as follows:
james.attemptsTo(AddATodoItem.called("purchase some milk"))
Or, if the project is a precondition, in preference to the main discipline of the look at various, they could write whatever like this:
james.wasAbleTo(AddATodoItem.referred to as("buy some milk"))
Let’s wreck it right down to take into account what is happening. at the heart of the Screenplay sample, an actor performs a sequence of tasks. In Serenity, this mechanism is carried out within the Actor classification the use of a adaptation of the Command pattern, the place the actor executes each and every project by means of invoking a distinct formula known as performAs() on the corresponding assignment object (see figure four):
figure 4: The actor invokes the performAs() system on a series of tasks
initiatives are only objects that put in force the project interface, and need to put into effect the performAs(actor) formulation. in reality, that you could suppose of any project classification as in reality a performAs() formula alongside a aiding forged of helper strategies.
projects will also be created using annotated fields or builders
To do its reporting magic, Serenity BDD needs to instrument the assignment and motion objects used all over the tests. The simplest way to do prepare here's to let Serenity create it for you, similar to another Serenity step library, the use of the @Steps annotation. In right here code snippet, Serenity will instantiate the openTheApplication box for you, so that James can use it to open the application:
@Steps inner most OpenTheApplication openTheApplication;
This works well for extremely elementary tasks or actions, as an instance ones that take no parameters. however for more sophisticated initiatives or actions, a factory or builder trial
(like the one used with their prior AddATodoItem) is more effortless. skilled practitioners often like to make the builder method and the class identify combine to study like an English sentence, in order that the intent of the task remains crystal clear:
AddATodoItem.called("purchase some milk")
Serenity BDD provides the special Instrumented class that makes it handy to create project or action objects using the builder sample. for instance, the AddATodoItem classification has an immutable box referred to as thingToDo, that contains the text to move in the new Todo merchandise.
public category AddATodoItem implements assignment
deepest closing String thingToDo;
covered AddATodoItem(String thingToDo) this.thingToDo = thingToDo;
we are able to invoke this constructor using the Instrumented.instanceOf().withProperties() strategies, as shown right here:
public category AddATodoItem implements assignment
deepest remaining String thingToDo;
included AddATodoItem(String thingToDo) this.thingToDo = thingToDo;
public static AddATodoItem referred to as(String thingToDo)
high-stage projects are composed of different lessen-stage initiatives or actions
To get the job carried out, a high-level business project will continually deserve to name both decrease degree company initiatives or moves that have interaction more without delay with the software. In follow, this means that the performAs() formula of a job usually executes different, lessen degree projects or interacts with the software in any other manner. for instance, adding a todo item requires two UI moves:
Enter the todo textual content within the text field
The performAs() formula within the AddATodoItem classification used prior does exactly that:
inner most final String thingToDo;
@Step("0 adds a todo item known as #thingToDo")
public <T extends Actor> void performAs(T actor)
The precise implementation makes use of the Enter category, a pre-described action classification that incorporates Serenity. motion courses are very corresponding to assignment courses, apart from that they focal point on interacting without delay with the utility. Serenity gives a set of fundamental action courses for core UI interactions akin to coming into box values, clicking on points, or opting for values from drop-down lists. In apply, these provide a handy and readable DSL that means that you can describe standard low-stage UI interactions mandatory to function a job.
within the Serenity Screenplay implementation, they use a unique target class to determine elements using (through default) either CSS or XPATH. The target object associates a WebDriver selector with a human-readable label that looks in the look at various stories to make the reviews more readable. You outline a target object as proven here:
target WHAT_NEEDS_TO_BE_DONE = target.the(
"'What needs to be carried out?' field").locatedBy("#new-todo")
ambitions are often kept in small page-Object like classes that are liable for one issue, figuring out the way to find the elements for a particular UI component, such because the ToDoList type shown right here:
public class ToDoList
public static target WHAT_NEEDS_TO_BE_DONE = goal.the(
"'What has to be carried out?' field").locatedBy("#new-todo");
public static goal items = goal.the(
"checklist of todo gadgets").locatedBy(".view label");
public static target ITEMS_LEFT = goal.the(
"count number of items left").locatedBy("#todo-count number powerful");
public static goal TOGGLE_ALL = target.the(
"Toggle all objects link").locatedBy("#toggle-all");
public static target CLEAR_COMPLETED = goal.the(
"Clear achieved link").locatedBy("#clear-completed");
public static target FILTER = target.the(
public static target SELECTED_FILTER = goal.the(
"selected filter").locatedBy("#filters li .chosen");
The @Step annotation on the performAs() formula is used to supply counsel about how the task will appear within the test experiences:
@Step("0 adds a todo item known as #thingToDo")
public <T extends Actor> void performAs(T actor) …
Any member variables will also be noted in the @Step annotation with the aid of identify the usage of the hash (‘#’) prefix (like “#thingToDo” within the example). you can also reference the actor itself the use of the special “0” placeholder. The culmination is a blow-by means of-blow account of how each enterprise assignment become carried out (see determine 5).
figure 5: examine reviews reveal details about each tasks and UI interactions
tasks will also be used as building blocks with the aid of other initiatives
it is easy to reuse tasks in different, greater level tasks. as an instance, the trial
undertaking makes use of a AddTodoItems project to add a number of todo items to the listing, like this:
givenThat(james).wasAbleTo(AddTodoItems.called("stroll the dog",
"Put out the garbage"));
This project is described using the AddATodoItem class, as shown here:
public class AddTodoItems implements project
private closing list<String> todos;
covered AddTodoItems(record<String> gadgets)
this.todos = ImmutableList.copyOf(items);
@Step("0 adds the todo gadgets known as #todos")
public <T extends Actor> void performAs(T actor)
todo -> actor.attemptsTo(
AddATodoItem.referred to as(todo)
public static AddTodoItems referred to as(String... objects)
it is quite commonplace to reuse latest tasks to construct up greater subtle enterprise tasks during this means. A conference that we've discovered useful is to spoil from the average Java idiom and put the static creation formulation beneath the performAs() formula. here's because the most useful suggestions internal a task is how it is being performed instead of how it is created.
Actors can ask questions about the state of the utility
a customary automated acceptance check has three constituents:
set up some look at various facts and/or get the software into a time-honored state
operate some action
examine the brand new utility state with what is expected.
From a testing viewpoint, the third step is where the real value lies – here is the place they assess that the application does what it is meant to do.
In a standard Serenity test, we'd write an assertion the use of a library like Hamcrest or AssertJ to investigate an outcomes towards an expected price. the usage of the Serenity Screenplay implementation, they categorical assertions the usage of a flexible, fluent API reasonably similar to the one used for projects and movements. within the examine shown above, the statement appears like this:
then(james).should(seeThat(TheItems.displayed(), hasItem("purchase some milk")));
The structure of this code is illustrated in determine 6.
figure 6: A Serenity Screenplay statement
As you might expect, this code checks a value retrieved from the utility (the gadgets displayed on the display) towards an expected cost (described by way of a Hamcrest expression). despite the fact, rather than passing an genuine value, they move a question object. The position of a question object is to answer a genuine query in regards to the state of the software, from the factor of view of the actor, and typically the use of the talents of the actor to accomplish that.
Questions are rendered in human-readable form within the reports
an additional first-class aspect concerning the Screenplay assertions is that they appear in a really readable form in the examine experiences, making the intent of the look at various clearer and mistake diagnostics less demanding. (see determine 8).
figure 8: query objects are rendered in human-readable kind in the look at various record
Actors use their skills to interact with the equipment
Let’s see this principle in motion in one other check. The Todo software has a counter within the backside left hand nook indicating the remaining variety of items (see figure 7).
figure 7: The number of ultimate gadgets is displayed within the backside left nook of the checklist
The look at various to describe and assess this behavior may seem like this:
@checkpublic void should_see_the_number_of_todos_decrease_when_an_item_is_completed()
"stroll the dog", "Put out the rubbish"));
CompleteItem.referred to as("walk the dog")
then(james).should still(seeThat(TheItems.leftCount(), is(1)));
The verify should determine that the number of remaining objects (as indicated by means of the “items left” counter) is 1. The corresponding fact is within the ultimate line of the test:
then(james).may still(seeThat(TheItems.leftCount(), is(1)));
The static TheItems.leftCount() method is an easy manufacturing unit system that returns a brand new illustration of the ItemsLeftCounter type, as shown right here:
public category TheItems
public static query<listing<String>> displayed()
return new DisplayedItems();
public static query<Integer> leftToDoCount()
return new ItemsLeftCounter();
This serves conveniently to make the code study in a fluent vogue.
The query object is defined via the ItemsLeftCounter category. This type has one very real accountability: to study the quantity in the closing merchandise count text displayed on the backside of the todo checklist.
question objects are comparable to assignment and action objects. although, in its place of the performAs() used for initiatives and moves, a question type must put into effect the answeredBy(actor) system, and return end result of the a precise type. The ItemsLeftCounter is configured to return an Integer.
public category ItemsLeftCounter implements query<Integer>
public Integer answeredBy(Actor actor)
The Serenity Screenplay implementation provides a few low-stage UI interaction courses that let you question your net web page in a declarative way. within the code above, the answeredBy() formula makes use of the textual content interplay category to retrieve the text of the final merchandise count number and to convert it to an integer.
As proven prior to now, the vicinity common sense has been refactored into the TodoList type:
public static goal ITEMS_LEFT = target.the("count of objects left").
once once more, this code works at three degrees, each and every with distinctive tasks:
The proper stage step makes an assertion about the state of the utility:then(james).should still(seeThat(TheItems.leftCount(), is(1)));
The ItemsLeftCounter question class queries the state of the application and provides the outcome in the form expected by using the statement;
The TodoList class retailers the vicinity of net elements used by using the question classification.
Writing custom UI interactions
The Serenity Screenplay implementation comes with a variety of low-degree UI interplay courses. There could be very rare situations the place these don’t meet your wants. during this case, it is feasible to interact at once with the WebDriver API. You do that by means of writing your own motion classification, which is easy to do.
for example, feel they wish to delete an item within the todo listing, the usage of code along here lines:
DeleteAnItem.called("walk the dog")
@Step("0 deletes the item '#itemName'")
public <T extends Actor> void performAs(T theActor)
target deleteButton = TodoListItem.DELETE_ITEM_BUTTON.of(itemName);
The JSClick type is an easy implementation of the motion interface, and looks like this:
public classification JSClick implements motion
deepest final goal goal;
@Step("0 clicks on #goal")
public <T extends Actor> void performAs(T theActor)
WebElement targetElement = goal.resolveFor(theActor);
public static motion on(goal goal)
return instrumented(JSClick.category, target);
public JSClick(target target)
this.target = goal;
The vital code here is within the performAs() system, the place they use the BrowseTheWeb class to access the actor’s skill to make use of a browser. This gives full entry to the Serenity WebDriver API:
page Objects develop into smaller and extra really good
an enchanting final result of using the Screenplay trial
is that it adjustments the manner you use and view page Objects. The conception of a web page Object is to encapsulate the UI-related good judgment that accesses or queries a web page, or a part on a web page, at the back of a greater company-friendly API. As an idea, here's best.
however the problem with web page Objects (and with normal Serenity step libraries, for that be counted) is it can also be challenging to maintain them neatly organized. They are inclined to grow, fitting larger and harder to keep because the check suite grows. This should still be no shock for the reason that such page objects violate each the only accountability precept (SRP) and Open-Closed principle (OCP) – the ‘S’ and the ‘O’ in solid. Many examine suites come to be with advanced hierarchies of web page Objects, inheriting “typical” behavior akin to menu bars or logout buttons from a guardian web page Object, which violates the precept of favoring composition over inheritance. New tests customarily need modifications to latest web page Object courses, introducing the chance of bugs.
for those who use the Screenplay pattern, your web page Objects are likely to develop into smaller and greater concentrated, with a certainly defined mandate of finding elements for a selected part on the screen. once written, they tend to stay unchanged until the underlying net interface alterations.
BDD style scenarios are not mandatory
Some americans writing acceptance exams in an xUnit framework might also no longer like the Given/When/Then trend of writing eventualities. These strategies are there in simple terms for readability, assisting you're making your intent specific by expressing the place you organize (given), act (when) and assert (then). not everybody likes this style, and so you aren't confined to it. As an alternative which you can write:
james.attemptsTo(AddATodoItem.called("purchase some milk"));
james.should(seeThat(toDoItems, hasItem("buy some milk")));
The intent is implicit within the ‘wasAbleTo’, ‘attemptsTo’ and ‘should’ methods, however they accept as true with that making their intent specific will advantage us and any person else who will study their code later, and so they would suggest using the in-built givenThat(), when(), then() methods. when you are using this method in Cucumber, that you may pass over the Given/When/Then strategies as the intent is frequently explicit in the Cucumber step definitions.
The Screenplay trial
is an approach to writing automatic acceptance checks situated on first rate software engineering principles that makes it easier to write down clean, readable, scalable, and particularly maintainable verify code. it's one possibile result of the cruel refactoring of the page Object trial
towards strong principles. the new guide for the Screenplay trial
in Serenity BDD opens a couple of pleasing percentages. In particular:
The declarative writing fashion inspired by using the Screenplay pattern makes it tons more straightforward to write code this is easier to have in mind and hold;
task, motion and query classes tend to be greater bendy, reusable and readable than average Serenity step strategies;
isolating the skills of an actor provides a fine deal of flexibility. for instance, it is very handy to write down a examine with a couple of actors the usage of diverse browser circumstances.
Like many respectable software development practices, the Screenplay pattern takes some self-discipline to start with. Some care is initially required to design a readable, DSL-like API made up of smartly-organised projects, moves and questions. however, the benefits turn into apparent reasonably immediately when the verify suite scales, and these libraries of reusable components assist speed up the check writing manner to a sustainable price, cutting back the friction always linked to the ongoing renovation of computerized test suites.
here is just an introduction to the Screenplay trial
and its implementation in Serenity. The surest technique to be taught more is to look at working code. The supply code for the pattern challenge will also be found on Github.
about the Authors
John Ferguson wise is an skilled writer, speaker and coach specialising in Agile delivery Practices, at the moment primarily based in London. a world speaker smartly customary within the Agile group for his many posted articles and displays, chiefly in areas corresponding to BDD, TDD, test automation, software craftsmanship and team collaboration, John helps companies and groups everywhere convey greater software sooner and greater comfortably both through greater positive collaboration and conversation thoughts, and thru superior technical practices. LinkedIn, Github, site
Antony Marcano is most excellent everyday within the neighborhood for his thinking on BDD, consumer experiences, testing and writing fluent APIs & DSLs in Ruby, Java and extra. He has 16+ years of experience on agile projects and transformations of all sizes and shapes, spending as tons of his time as a practitioner as he does as a educate or coach. He shares his experiences with the community in various methods, including as a contributor to books comparable to Agile teaching and Agile testing with references in Bridging the communication gap and application Craftsmanship Apprenticeship Patterns. His work in the group continues as an everyday speaker on agile building at international conferences and as a regular visitor speaker at Oxford school.
Andy Palmer is co-creator of the ground-breaking PairWith.us screencasts, normal speaker at international conferences; Andy has shortened the beginning cycles of tasks across a large number of organisations along with his skills in taking complex know-how issues and simplifying them to their essence. Andy's capabilities in this area has enabled 5 fold discounts in cycle times on giant scale projects. With over 15 years of event, including massive intervals as a crew and administration coach, a developer and a equipment administrator, Andy has been bridging the communique gap considering the fact that earlier than DevOps had a name.
Jan Molak is a full-stack developer and instruct who spent ultimate 12 years constructing and transport application ranging from award-successful AAA video games and MMO RPGs through websites and webapps to serps, complicated event processing and economic programs. Jan's main focal point is on assisting firms carry valuable, outstanding application often and reliably through implementing useful engineering practices. A prolific contributor to the open-source community, Jan is the writer of the Jenkins construct video display assisting hundreds of groups international hold their builds eco-friendly and the start process smooth.