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Oracle Database exam Questions
by using Raul James
NFT: A Revolution in Copyright.
part 1: what is an NFT.
part 2: The Digital issue with Copyright.
half 3: Digital scarcity.
half four: what is in an NFT Copyright Contract.
part 5: wise Copyright.
half 6: The foreign Copyright Registry.
technology leads and legal guidelines comply with. This has been the dominant theme of the 21st Century. The emergence of blockchain know-how, born out of advances on the web and personal computing gadgets, has started to reshape their model of global finance and the realm economic climate with its presence felt predominantly in e-commerce. Blockchain, or disbursed Ledger expertise (“DLT”), is now expanding their horizons within the alternate of cloth blanketed by using copyright in the form of more and more widely wide-spread Non-Fungible Tokens (“NFTs”). NFTs guarantees to be greater than a mere fad, as this text makes an attempt to focus on its innovatively practical options to both contemporary and enduring problems that exist in the administration of copyright.
half 1: what is an NFT
An NFT is a listing of possession of an asset represented within the kind of a transferrable token it truly is registered on a blockchain. The “non-fungible” a part of an NFT denotes that an asset is exciting and not automatically exchangeable for equal price when transferred or utilized. for example, each Picasso portray isn't equal in value or replaceable, not like cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin the place one unit is equal in price to an additional Bitcoin and for this reason is interchangeable for some thing its latest market price is in Fiat foreign money, equivalent to US greenbacks or Euros. The creator ventures to take a position as a prevalent rule that at any place the equitable remedy of “specific performance” is favourite as compensation on the loss or damage of an outstanding, it is more probably that the first rate may be described as being “non-fungible”. accordingly, each tangible and intangible belongings may well be represented on an NFT.
The advantages of NFTs come primarily from the attributes of DLTs, being:
· A decentralized community;
· A transparent immutable checklist; and
· incredibly tamper resistant.
These attributes of DLTs such as Blockchain is an amalgamation of three technologies that have existed for a long time, being:
· The web;
· Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks; and
· Public/inner most key digital encryption.
much more technical and special practical descriptions of DLTs exist in different places, which isn't the center of attention of this article. despite the fact, it's important to remember the essentials; that a DLT is a public registry, maintained and up to date eternally using incredibly advanced cryptographic calculations by way of impartial actors, referred to as nodes or validators. here is unlike the Land Titles Registries of governments or charge information of inner most price processors reminiscent of Visa or Mastercard, the place a principal entity determines the validity and registration of each and every transaction.
The intention of getting independent validators is to establish have faith in the registry with out exposing it to any single point of failure, because a existing replica of the DLT might be kept by all of them. each validator node will compete to be the primary to technique each and every transaction on the ledger, thereby being renumerated when a majority of subsequent nodes reach consensus on the correctness of that listing. This consensus mechanism, known as Proof of work, is considered one of many that leverages the idea that assistance agreed upon by using competing events will be tremendously immune to manipulation or tampering. This offers a great solution to the “double-spend” problem that may undo the integrity of any digital exchange or price from one birthday celebration to a further on a P2P network. where a digital file could ordinarily be copied and pasted completely and shared over the cyber web, a DLT will serve as an immutable listing of possession for a transaction that couldn't be reversed or duplicated.
DLTs introduce the idea of scarcity over the limitless domain of the internet and transforms raw records into valuable, tradeable digital assets over an open community. The general perplexity of this proposition is understanding how cost might exist over an summary or imaginary item; yet people deal in abstract property every day, within the kind of shares in agencies, govt bonds and other Choses in action. thus, the attributes of DLTs are a boon to one of the oldest types of summary property rights, copyright, which has had a tumultuous background of translating over the cyber web.
probably the most resourceful function of DLTs are its implementation of the “sensible Contract”. computing device scientist Nick Szabo, proposed the concept in 1994 where he describes it as:
“a set of promises, together with protocols inside which the parties function on the different guarantees. The protocols are continually carried out with courses on a laptop community, or in other kinds of digital electronics, consequently these contracts are “smarter” than their paper-primarily based ancestors.”
In layman’s terms, it's a computer software that automatically executes instructions between two or more contracting parties. using computing device programs as a contractual tool isn't new and were around considering that the birth of the vending desktop, despite the fact a sensible contract radically scales up the complexity in which these commands may operate. however now not being immune to error, it enormously reduces the want for expensive intermediaries and diminishes the chance for contractual repudiation when you consider that it requires no human interaction or intervention to comprehensive. This enables complex microtransactions involving an unlimited number of participants to now not handiest be economically possible, but additionally operates close instantaneously and is financially cozy.
The Ethereum blockchain, unlike Bitcoin, changed into the first to combine the simultaneous operation of sensible contracts into the processing of transactions by means of its validator nodes. These has enabled the operation of incredibly sophisticated features, corresponding to Decentralised purposes (DApps) and Decentralised self sufficient establishments (DAOs) that take blockchains past only a payment mechanism to actions akin to governance models, P2P loans and disintermediated digital asset exchanges. additionally, the Ethereum blockchain has additionally embedded different layers of sub-blockchains called “side-chains” with their personal native cryptocurrencies and smart contract functionality. The best part is, they're all interoperable. The success of its implementation has surged ETH in recognition to being the 2d biggest cryptocurrency with the aid of market capitalisation, valued round $497 Billion at its peak.
Like most different major blockchains, Ethereum’s continual building and development is carried out open-supply by the use of a world consortium of utility engineers. A majority consensus will should be fashioned through them to adopt any proposals for software-degree necessities or enhancements, known as an Ethereum Request for comments (ERC) with a host attached to the end to determine the specific proposal. ERC-721 is the adopted general that enables the operation of NFTs. Its intention is to characteristic as deeds that proof ownership of each digital and real belongings represented in a token that could benefit from the whole Ethereum ecosystem. Blockchains other than Ethereum have since protected smart contracts and NFTs as a part of their ecosystems and there are even initiatives underway to enable interoperability between fully separate blockchains (go-chain functionality). This has the skills to exchange the way copyright owners and clients engage continuously.
part 2: The Digital issue with Copyright
Digital info could be completely duplicated; here's simply the character of how information is communicated from the memory of 1 desktop to a different. The problem this presents to digital information that are blanketed by means of copyright, is that it without delay conflicts with the copyright owner’s unique right to reproduce copies of their work whenever a consumer transfers the file to one other without the categorical and even implied consent of the owner.
The resale of a copyright-covered work to an additional user, however, isn't in itself an infringement of copyright. just before the times of digital media, copyright exhaustion (or the doctrine of first sale as it is widely used in the u.s.) operated to enable copyright clients the capability to accomplish that with real copies of the work because it is held that the copyright owner’s correct to intrude “exhausts” during the “first sale” of the copy to the person. This precept is what makes it possible for copyright users to sell items such as books, records, artwork, toys and pictures freely at second-hand or collector’s marketplaces.
one of the crucial key elements that impacts the principle of copyright exhaustion is the idea that the copyright proprietor has a valid pastime in limiting the deliver of accessible copies in the marketplace to protect its price, seeing that they by myself have the skill to make new copies of their work. beyond prison exceptions to copyright, clients may simplest resell attainable copies which are either worn-down or are in a lesser-circumstance to new reproductions of the work by the copyright owner. This theoretically prevents excellent competitors to take place between the brand new and older copies of copyrighted work, and is struck as a good steadiness on the opposing interest of society to entry works and the copyright’s homeowners pastime to cash in on their labours.
The digitisation of media has been not easy for copyright homeowners, most of all due to the incidence of web copyright piracy the place identical infringing copies of digitised works may well be created at little to no can charge and shared common by way of P2P. users are also faced with the problem of not being in a position to “promote” their legitimately-received copies online and even transferring the file from one gadget to a further, in view that both circumstances would volume to an infringement of the copyright proprietor’s unique replica rights.
These elements have been regarded when courts had to grapple with the question of whether copyright exhaustion applied to digital files. the european courtroom of Justice arrived on the conclusion that it doesn't, when in view that the resale of Ebooks in the case of Tom Kabinet. This reversed what become prior to now concept to be an endorsement of digital copyright exhaustion by the same court on the query of resold unused application licences in the case of Usedsoft. What distinguishes Tom Kabinet from Usedsoft, became that the respondent in Usedsoft had the insurance policy of legislation that makes it an exception to the guideline, or lex specialis, that copyright exhaustion utilized to software licenses in narrow cases lined by way of Directive 2009/24EC (application Directive) which states:
“the first sale in the community of a copy of a program via the rightholder or together with his consent shall exhaust the distribution appropriate in the group of that copy, except for the appropriate to manage extra condo of the application or a replica thereof”.
This clarifies what became controversially perceived as a frequent rule that copyright exhaustion utilized to all digital info, when delivered within the older Directive 2001/29 EC (Infosoc Directive) which states:
“The distribution right shall no longer be exhausted inside the community in appreciate of the customary or copies of the work, apart from where the first sale or different switch of ownership in the group of that object is made by using the rightholder or together with his consent”.
The CJEU in Tom Kabinet certified “long-established or copies” of the digital work as whatever thing that ought to exists both digitally and bodily within within the equal electronic device it is subject to a resale for it to improvement from copyright exhaustion. for example, if you wanted to resell Ebooks, a user can most effective do so by using promoting the real computing device they are saved on as smartly, however isn't allowed to transfer just the digital file electronically. The subject of the courtroom became primarily concentrated on the bias it would cause to the copyright owner, may still there be an uncontrolled proliferation of duplicates being resold.
in the united states, the question manifested within the sort of digital tune info that have been resold via users on an online industry within the case of ReDigi. however the platform featured a media manager that performed a synchronous deletion of the data on the person’s gadget upon being uploaded for sale on the market’s cloud servers, the song publishing large Capitol records finally succeeded in organising a declare for copyright infringement against the platform. it is now settled legislations that the doctrine of ‘First Sale’ enshrined in s109 of the us Copyright Act does not practice to digital info blanketed with the aid of copyright.
In Australia, there is no commonplace appropriate to control the distribution of copyright material and no categorical provision proposing for the exhaustion of this right upon first sale. the prevailing view of academics are that the common physical market secondary sale of copyrighted items would now not be infringing if there is not any direct battle with the copyright proprietor’s unique rights to “reproduce, “put up, “replica”, “broadcast”, or “talk to the public in digital form”. Absent any check case to the query of whether the resale of a digital work quantities to an infringement on the “broadcast” or “verbal exchange” correct, the shortcoming of the specific provision suggests a major chance of legal responsibility for one of these transaction.
half 3: Digital scarcity
a common finding within the situations above is the subject that the digital realm couldn't accommodate the equal market forces that restricts the supply and distribution of copyright protected works within the real world as a result of the innate “difficulty” of digital copyright as mentioned earlier in this half. This reasoning will likely form the resolution of lawmakers and judges in Australia on the question, however it may no longer impede how clients and copyright house owners have interaction online in a fashion that closely resembles the resale of copyrighted digital works with the appearance of blockchain expertise.
the arrival of NFTs are proof of idea that shortage can be embedded into digital information just as blockchain had done so with digital currencies. greater Artists are using this platform due to the purposeful and financial benefits it gifts to them in advertising their work that is not possible by the use of established means. US picture designer Mike Winkelmann (Beeple) become relatively unknown except he sold his digital painting, “commonplace: the first 5000 Days” as an NFT public sale for USD 69 Million. Musician DJ 3LAU correctly auctioned 33 NFTs as a third anniversary version of his album Ultraviolet for USD eleven Million inside 24 hours of its opening. Malaysian visible artist, purple Hong Yi sold her NFT for a simultaneously digital and physical artwork titled “Doge to the Moon” for the equal of USD76,732.forty, a haul worth more than what she crafted from an additional visual paintings piece, “local weather is everything” which changed into up to now featured on the cowl of Time magazine.
It isn't the case that authors and artists couldn't promote their works online that makes this development massive; online marketplaces for digital artwork were around for a very long time. although, clients can now expect the digital works they've purchased to hold and possibly even recognize in value in a resale of the NFT, unleashing a dynamic that had been in the past unavailable.
NFTs do not keep away from copyright infringement from taking place. The work protected through copyright can be counterfeited and disseminated simply because it may for non-digital items. besides the fact that children, NFTs deliver a respectable and effective formula for clients to legitimately transact within the resale of copyrighted works devoid of unfairly economically disadvantaging the copyright proprietor. as a result of the immutable, tamper resistant and clear record of possession on an NFT, the question is not any longer no matter if an individual acquires an “long-established” reproduction of a digital work, but reasonably that they're acquiring one this is “genuine”. Indefeasible title on the NFT register becomes the tradeable commodity.
part 4: what's in an NFT Copyright Contract
it is preferable that an express written contract is entered into by using the copyright proprietor to be sure their rights are blanketed and never left area to ambiguity. definite NFT marketplaces have protected conditions in their phrases of use to set a standard. Axiomzen, one of the vital earliest pioneers of NFTs that famously created the Cryptokitties digital collectibles game, have drafted established terms of contract for their product whilst also creating a common for contributors. item 2 on these phrases state:
“You well known and agree that Creator (or, as applicable, its licensors) owns all prison appropriate, title and activity in and to the art, and all intellectual property rights therein. The rights that you've in and to the art are confined to these described in this License. Creator reserves all rights in and to the art no longer expressly granted to you during this License.”
The term above helps to clarify that any customer of the NFT Cryptokitties online game have been gaining a really confined license that excludes a license to breed any of the art linked to Cryptokitties digital collectibles. Having terms that evidently demarcate the rights of the copyright owner and the user is eye-catching in any state of affairs; think about otherwise explaining the business of marketing high priced virtual animated cats to a choose.
in the scenario the place there is an absence of any express phrases, the implied phrases should be construed to deliver
business efficacy based on the legislations. here's a particularly unhealthy condition, notably in a brand new area such as NFTs since it contains assessing new or novel factors the place it could be elaborate to generalise the typical company habits of those engaged in the same exercise.
as an example, an owner of a copyright to a tune creates a limited variety of copies which are “minted” as ERC-721 NFTs and sells them. via transferring the NFT to the buyer, the purchaser features exclusive manage of the NFT by the use of their inner most keys until they too transfer it on to another purchaser. for the reason that the copyright owner is entirely conscious that he would lack the technical ability to intervene with the transfer of the NFT and a digital reproduction of the music is required to benefit from the NFT, it may be implied that any subsequent purchaser of the digital reproduction of the song represented by the NFT has a confined licence to breed it for their personal use. From these same set of records, it is not not likely that a copyright user who buys an NFT would additionally boost the impression that they may additionally broadcast or communicate the tune due to the fact they have handle and possession of the NFT to the exclusion of the original owner.
The behavior of the events described above might also appear to resemble greater of enabling a “resale” of a digital file, even though it would nonetheless contradict the us and CJEU court docket choices mentioned above below a strict interpretation of what constitutes the resale of an “fashioned” as opposed to “genuine” copy of a digital work. This can also require a deeper discourse into the very material of Copyright law by using legislators and the judiciary, besides the fact that children, the growing NFT trend amongst copyright users and owners is departing from this customary view on Copyright Exhaustion from their very habits.
half 5: wise Copyright
The increasing use of sensible contracts in NFT transactions has the capabilities of changing no longer just the style they manipulate copyright, however also how the legislation might be interpreted and utilized.
The laws that govern the connection between the events may be built into the wise contract is a non-public ordering of computing device-code based mostly legislations. Over twenty years ago, academics argued that computer code is part of many styles of “legislations” that might form human behaviour in the form of normative constraints, considering that laptop code could be used to enforce felony and contractual rules correctly. It may perform the basic function of a cozy payment contract intermediary, within the sale of NFTs between copyright homeowners and clients, or in trades between clients; It might execute the feature of an automated auction, with reserved expenses and different variables; It may even be used in the assortment of rents pursuant to a copyright licensing contract tokenised in the sort of an NFT. The features of middlemen or intermediaries reminiscent of publishing businesses or even lawyers could be much less primary seeing that authors are capable of submit at once to buyers quicker and deploy remuneration without the need for voluminous forms. Direct impartial publishing from content creators to consumers is already a thriving feature on the web nowadays, via on-line features such as Youtube, Soundcloud and OnlyFans. The democratising impact of the information superhighway is barely going to be better by the use of the incidence of the smart contract, growing new capability of monetisation as it leverages economies of scale without the associated costs.
This inner most-ordering of legislation in wise contracts could have its biggest have an effect on on the technological enforcement over digital copyrighted works. using desktop application to adjust copyright is not new, because it predates even the internet by the use of using Digital Rights management (“DRM”) systems. the integration of DRMs into wise contracts as a layer to the NFT is the second half of the puzzle in imposing shortage over digital info. indeed, DRM is already getting used for digital copyrighted works such as Ebooks, tune files, motion pictures, video games and laptop software subscriptions, youngsters, its combined function with a decentralised ubiquitous on-line listing of ownership will align entry permissions to those information along with the control of the NFT. As an analogy, the NFT will no longer best be the “title deed” to the house, but additionally the “keys” by using implementing the DRM. This ensures that clients will lose entry and handle to the digital file upon finishing a switch of the NFT to an additional person.
The deepest-ordering of legislation by way of the deepest sector by way of the use of DRMs is a count of controversy. this is accompanied where copyright owners flout and disregard the legal authorized uses and barriers to copyright through encoding their desired outcome in the DRM. authorised makes use of such as the fair Dealing provisions for analysis and study, criticism and evaluation, or reporting the information in Australia, could be excluded or disregarded absolutely through the DRM. moreover, other extra often relevant ideas reminiscent of “reasonable Use” in the united states (us of a) can be complex to accommodate inside the strains of desktop code. additionally, the perpetuity of the blockchain could extend copyright protections over digital works past their legislated terms, reminiscent of 70 years after the life of the writer of works in Australia.
The laws that limit these invasive measures to the public hobby are susceptible. due to the fact that accredited uses are framed as exceptions to copyright infringement, there is no clarity as as to whether the exception is obligatory in legislations such because the fair Dealing provisions of Division 3 of the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) in Australia. then again, the law affords de facto protection for DRMs, in spite of whether the DRMs deliver
unfair or illegal merits to the copyright proprietor as viewed in:
· part 116AN that prohibits the circumvention of entry manage technological insurance policy measures; and
· part 116B that prohibits the elimination or alteration of digital rights management counsel.
it's worth noting that within the same act, the most effective exception to the abovementioned protections is
“anything finished for the functions of legislations enforcement or countrywide safety by or on behalf the Commonwealth or State or Territory”.
in the european, Article 6(four) of the Infosoc Directive even goes to the extent of certainly forbidding the circumvention of DRMs for situations where it considerations accepted uses or legitimate barriers to copyright.
The international copyright treaties don't supply any necessary approved uses or boundaries to copyright. nevertheless, these treaties function an settlement for minimum levels of copyright insurance policy, with unconditional selected provisions requiring the insurance policy of DRMs as in Articles 11 to 12 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty and Articles 18 to 19 of the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty.
mockingly, P2P networks which had traditionally deprived copyright owners will unfairly shift the stability of vigour in their favour because they might be able to dictate the terms of the smart contract from the outset. The ramifications of this could be felt internationally as digital copyrighted items and NFTs are being traded throughout the without boundary lines ambiance of the information superhighway, making the diversifications in permitted uses and boundaries to copyright between nations illusory.
half 6: The overseas Copyright Registry
A publicly attainable register for copyright has been a protracted-standing count of debate among intellectual property academicians. The arguments towards any such facility would aspect out that the needless bureaucratic can charge of holding a registry and the elevated complication it poses to authors far outweighs the perceived merits it guarantees. Some argue more principled opinions, that copyright may still continue to be an unregistrable right and by way of imposing otherwise would render expanded barriers to society from benefitting from the fruits of their talents, judgment and ability.
Most nations with a registrable copyright device, such as the u . s . a ., have proceeded to position in area a twin system the place individuals could voluntarily choose to register their work with the critical authorities or not and nevertheless benefit from the equal copyright coverage. the united states copyright workplace as an example, would operate as a centralised repository of consultant copies of copyrighted works with a searchable database to deliver
information related to the proprietor as well as other details reminiscent of contributors and crucial dates of creation.
The top advantage of having copyrighted works registered is that it serves as a effective element of reference when questions related to possession ever come up, doubtlessly deterring the charges of a court docket dispute to investigate the fact. in any other case, claimants and defendants alike will undergo the onus of providing facts to facts possession at giant cost to themselves and the courts. furthermore, society stands to lose from the dilemma of Orphan Works, thereby lawful homeowners couldn't be located or conveniently discernible, resulting in the below utilisation of positive copyrighted works out of the worry of exposure to liability for copyright infringement.
NFTs items a perfect midpoint between a registered and unregistered copyright system. like the usa and China, copyright house owners could decide to voluntarily “mint” their works on an NFT and consist of all quintessential suggestions in the Rights management information (RMI) that could be embedded in the sensible contract of the NFT. in contrast to countrywide registries, it is going to come for gratis to the taxpayer as it requires no centralised public intermediary to control.
The improvement of copyright legislation is that it is the most internationally harmonised sort of highbrow property, as a result of the success of the Berne convention of 1886 which has created standards which are acknowledged by using extra countries than another treaty on intellectual property. therefore, unlike country wide registries which only operate domestically, the tips registered on an NFT can be strong legitimate circumstantial proof to show ownership in over 176 international locations.
NFTs are already shaping human behaviour in how they behave and create price with copyright. although important prison questions will deserve to be addressed as they enter into this new era, the adjustments we're seeing have been lead with performance and practicality in intellect. As more of their human interactions is digitized, NFTs may smartly be the bridge the price hole between their digital and physical dimensions
this article is for discussion applications only and is not intended to be taken as professional legal suggestions. Please are searching for the features of a training felony professional to obtain advice this is proper to your needs.
 Michel Callon. ‘Society within the making: the examine of know-how as a tool for sociological analysis.’ in Wiebe E. Bijker et al (ed), The social construction of technological programs: New instructions within the sociology and history of expertise (MIT Press, 1987), 83.
 Ifeanyi Okonkwo, ‘NFT, Copyright & intellectual Property Commercialisation’ (21 can also 2021) SSRN 1.
 Tonya M. Evans, ‘Cryptokitties, Cryptography, and Copyright’, (2019) 47(2) AIPLA Quarterly Journal 219, at 246.
 “The treatment of particular performance in equity is grounded on the inadequacy of the typical legislation cure of damages where it might look that specific performance would be above all applicable in cases where damages, being nominal, have been grossly inadequate” per Lord Reid in Beswick v Beswick  AC fifty eight, peculiarly at ninety, ninety one, 102.
 Satoshi Nakamoto, ‘Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer digital money equipment’, Bitcoin.Org (White Paper, 18 August 2008) at 3.
 Evans above n three, at 235.
 Michael Finck and Valentina Moscon, ‘Copyright on Blockchains: Between New sorts of Rights Administration and Digital Rights administration 2.0’ (2019) 50 international review of intellectual Property and competitors legislation 77, at 89-ninety.
 B P Singh and Anand Kumar Tripathi, ‘Blockchain know-how and intellectual Property Rights’  January-March Journal of intellectual Property Rights at forty one-42.
 Viktorija Stepanova and Ingars Erins, ‘Blockchain-primarily based mannequin for utility Licensing’, (2019) 4th international conference on system Reliability and security, computer Science and tips expertise, Riga Technical college, at 31.
 Nakamoto above n 5, at 2; additionally see Stephen Fleming, Blockchain technology: Introduction to Blockchain know-how and its have an effect on on company Ecosystem (CreateSpace independent Publishing Platform, 2017) at 3.
 Nick Szabo, wise Contracts thesaurus, ARCHIVE.today (1995),
< https://archive.fo/fcx3I [http://perma.cc/W69Q-XFUF]>.
 Eric D. Chason, ‘smart Contracts and the boundaries of Computerized Commerce’ (2020) ninety nine(2) Nebraska legislation evaluate 330, at 349.
 Evans above n three, at 245.
 Chason above n 13, at 356.
 Ibid at 349.
 Guseva, Yuliya, ‘A Conceptual Framework for Digital-Asset Securities: Tokens and coins as Debt and fairness’, (2020-2021) eighty Maryland legislation overview 166, at 179-181.
 Ibid at one hundred seventy five.
 Coinmarketcap, Ethereum (Webpage, 16 August 2021) < https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/ethereum/markets/>.
 Evans above n 3, at 247.
 Ibid 248.
 William Entriken et al., ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token regular, GITHUB: ETHEREUM (Jan. 24, 2018), < https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/grasp/EIPS/eip-721.md >.
 Hyperledger (Webpage, sixteen August 2021) < https://www.hyperledger.org/ >.
 Trevor McDaniel, ‘Copyright and the internet: increasing the first Sale Doctrine to Digital items throughout foreign Boundaries’ (wintry weather 2019) 19(12) Wake wooded area Journal of company and intellectual Property legislations 124, at 126.
 Evan Hess, ‘Code-ifying Copyright: An Architectural answer to Digitally increasing the first Sale Doctrine’ (2012-2013) 81 Fordham law overview 1965 at 1.
 Sven Schonhofen, ‘Usedsoft and its aftermath: The Resale of Digital content in the European Union’ (winter, 2016) sixteen Wake wooded area Journal of company and highbrow Property legislations 262 at 265.
 Finck and Moscon above n 7, at ninety three-ninety four.
 See Caterina Sganga at 235.
 Peter ok. Yu, ‘Digital Copyright Enforcement Measures and their Human Rights Threats’ in Christophe Geiger (eds), research guide on human rights and highbrow property (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015) at 1.
 Nederlands Uitgeversverbond v Tom Kabinet cyber web BV (C-263/18)  ECDR 1.
 UsedSoft GmbH v Oracle international Corp. (C-128/eleven)  ECDR 19.
 Ibid 51.
 Article 4 (2) of the eu Parliament and Council Directive 09/24/EC of 23 April 2009 on the criminal protection of laptop programs  OJ L 111/18.
 See Péter Mezei at 136.
 Article 4 (2) of the ecu Parliament and Council Directive 01/29/EC of 22 may also 2001 on the harmonisation of definite elements of copyright and related rights within the information society  OJ L 167/10.
 Nederlands Uitgeversverbond v Tom Kabinet internet BV (C-263/18)  ECDR at 57.
 Capitol records, LLC v. ReDigi, Inc., 934 F.Supp.second 640 (new york SD, 2013).
 See Jessica Stevens at 191-192.
 Okonkwo above n at 1.
 Dinesh Kumar Maganathan, ‘red Hong Yi’s NFT artwork has bought for RM325,000, part proceeds to head to charity’, The superstar (online, 12 July 2021) < https://www.thestar.com.my/way of life/subculture/2021/07/12/pink-hong-yi039s-nft-artwork-has-bought-for-rm325000-half-proceeds-to-go-to-charity >.
 D. W. Pine, ‘The Story behind TIME’s ‘local weather is every thing’ cover’, Time (online, 15 April 2021) < https://time.com/5954495/story-behind-local weather-is-every thing-cover/ >.
 Jessica Bookout, Cimbol, Collins, and Devin L. Newman, ,a brief Introduction to Digital paintings & Blockchain’, (2019) 37 Cardozo Arts & entertainment legislation Journal 553, at 557.
 Dean Takahashi, ‘CryptoKitties blockchain sensation raises $12 million’, assignment Beat (on-line, 20 March 2018) < https://venturebeat.com/2018/03/20/cryptokitties-blockchain-sensation-raises-12-million/ >.
 Nifty License, https://www.niftylicense.org/.
 Codelfa construction Pty Ltd v State Rail Authority of NSW (1982) 149 CLR 337, per Mason J at para 5, “The implication of a time period is to be in comparison, and on the same time contrasted, with rectification of the contract. In each and every case the issue is brought about with the aid of a deficiency in the expression of the consensual agreement. A time period which should were blanketed has been ignored. The difference is that with rectification the time period which has been unnoticed and may were covered changed into really agreed upon; with implication the term is one which it's presumed that the parties would have agreed upon had they became their minds to it - it is not a time period that they have definitely agreed upon.”; See additionally para 9.
 Finck and Moscon above n 7, at ninety nine.
 Lawrence Lessig, Code and different laws of their on-line world (primary Books manhattan, 1998).
 Balázs Bodó, Daniel Gervais and João Pedro Quintais, ‘Blockchain and smart Contracts: The missing hyperlink in Copyright Licensing?’  26(four) foreign Journal of legislation and tips technology 311, at 329.
 Wang, Qin, et al. "Non-fungible token (NFT): Overview, contrast, alternatives and challenges." arXiv preprint arXiv:2105.07447 (2021) at 2.
 Finck and Moscon above n 7, at 102.
 See Balázs Bodó, Daniel Gervais and João Pedro Quintais above n 52, at 333.
 Alexander Savelyev, ‘Copyright within the blockchain period: guarantees and challenges’  34(three) computer legislation & security evaluation 550 at 552.
 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s forty.
 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s 41.
 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s forty two.
 See N Elkin-Koren at 22.
 Finck and Moscon above n 7, at eighty three.
 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s 33.
 Finck and Moscon above n 7, at 86.
 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s 116AN.
 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s 116B.
 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) s 116CB.
 Article 6(four) of the eu Parliament and Council Directive 01/29/EC of 22 may additionally 2001 on the harmonisation of certain facets of copyright and linked rights within the counsel society  OJ L 167/10.
 Finck and Moscon above n 7, at 86.
 World highbrow Property firm Copyright Treaty, opened for signature 20 December 1996,  2186 U.N.T.S. 121; 36 I.L.M. 65 (entered into drive 6 March 2002) Article 12.
 World intellectual Property company Performances and Phonogram Treaty, opened for signature 20 December 1996,  2186 U.N.T.S. 203; 36 I.L.M. seventy six (entered into drive 20 can also 2002). Articles 18 and 19.
 Evans above n 3, at 261.