Nortel 920-221 : Nortel Converged Campus ERS Installation & Configuration Exam
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Exam Number : 920-221
Exam Name : Nortel Converged Campus ERS Installation & Configuration
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Nortel Campus testing
Virtualization, lengthy a hot subject for servers, has entered the networking realm. With the introduction of a new administration blade for its Catalyst 6500 switches, Ciscocan make two switches seem like one while dramatically cutting back failover instances in the technique.
In an unique Clear choice check of Cisco’s new digital Switching device (VSS), network World conducted its greatest-ever benchmarks so far, the usage of a enormous look at various mattress with one hundred thirty 10G Ethernet interfaces.
The effects have been stunning: VSS now not best supplies a 20-fold development in failover times however also eliminates layer-2 and layer-three redundancy protocols on the equal time.
The performance numbers are even more startling: A VSS-enabled digital switch moved a list 770 million frames per second in one test, and routed more than 5.6 billion unicast and multicast flows in one other. these numbers are precisely twice what a single real Catalyst 6509 can do.
All hyperlinks, all of the time
to maximise uptime, network architects usually provision assorted links and contraptions at every layer of the community, the use of an alphabet soup of redundancy protocols to protect towards downtime. These include rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP), scorching standby routing protocol (HSRP), and virtual router redundancy protocol (VRRP). (compare switch redundancy facets in the network World’s change purchaser’s e-book.) This approach works, however has numerous downsides. Chief among them is the “energetic-passive” mannequin used via most redundancy protocols, where one course includes traffic while the other sits idle until a failure happens. lively-passive fashions use simplest 50% of attainable skill, adding appreciable capital fee.
extra, both HSRP and VRRP require three IP addresses per subnet, in spite of the fact that routers use only one handle at a time. And whereas fast spanning tree recovers from screw ups much sooner than the original spanning tree, convergence instances can nevertheless differ through a few seconds, leading to erratic application performance. Strictly talking, spanning tree become meant best to avoid loops, but it surely’s universal as a redundancy mechanism. There’s an extra downside to latest redundant community designs: It creates twice as many community facets to control. even with no matter if network managers use a command-line interface or an SNMP-based mostly system for configuration management, any coverage alternate needs to be made twice, as soon as on each and every redundant component.
Introducing virtual Switching
In contrast, Cisco’s VSS makes use of an “energetic-energetic” mannequin that retains the identical amount of redundancy, but makes use of all obtainable hyperlinks and change ports.
whereas many providers assist hyperlink aggregation (a means of mixing assorted physical interfaces to seem as one logical interface), VSS is interesting in its means to virtualize the entire swap — together with the change fabric and all interfaces. link aggregation and variations similar to Nortel’s break up Multi-hyperlink Trunk (SMLT) do not create virtual switches, nor do they dispose of the need for layer-3 redundancy mechanisms similar to HSRP or VRRP. (See Nortel CTO’s tackle this assessment.) at the coronary heart of VSS is the virtual Switching Supervisor 720-10G, a management and switch fabric blade for Cisco Catalyst 6500 switches. VSS — which all started delivery ultimate month — requires two new supervisor cards, one in each and every physical chassis. The administration blades create a virtual switch hyperlink (VSL), making both devices seem as one to the backyard world: There’s just one media access handle and one IP handle used, and each techniques share a standard configuration file that covers all ports in each chassis.
On the access side of Cisco’s digital swap, downstream instruments nonetheless connect to both real chassis, but a bonding expertise known as Multichassis EtherChannel (MEC) presents the digital swap as one logical equipment. MEC links can use trade-normal 802.1ad link aggregation or Cisco’s proprietary port aggregation protocol. either way, MEC eliminates the want for spanning tree. All hyperlinks within a MEC are active except a circuit or switch failure happens, and then traffic continues to flow over the final hyperlinks within the MEC.
Servers also can use MEC’s hyperlink aggregation aid, and not using a additional software crucial. varied connections changed into already possible the use of “NIC teaming,” but that’s continually a proprietary, active/passive method.
On the core aspect of Cisco’s virtual change, devices also use MEC connections to connect to the virtual swap. This eliminates the want for redundancy protocols equivalent to HSRP or VRRP, and additionally reduces the variety of routes marketed. As on the access aspect, site visitors flows throughout the MEC in an “active/energetic” demo unless a failure, after which the MEC continues to function with fewer facets.
The previous examples focused on distribution-layer switches, however VSL links work between any two Catalyst 6500 chassis. for example, virtual switching may also be used at each core and distribution layers, or on the core, distribution and access layers. All attached devices would see one logical device wherever a virtual change exists.
A VSL works only between two chassis, but it can aid as much as eight physical hyperlinks. assorted VSL hyperlinks may also be dependent the use of any mixture of interfaces on the new supervisor card or Cisco’s WS-6708 10G Ethernet line card. VSS also requires line cards in Cisco’s 67xx series, such as the 6724 and 6748 10/one hundred/a thousand modules or the 6704 or 6708 10G Ethernet modules. Cisco says VSL manage site visitors makes use of lower than 5% of a 10G Ethernet link, but they did not investigate this.
as a minimum for now, VSL site visitors is proprietary. It isn’t viable to deploy a VSL between, say, a Cisco and Foundry switch.
a large swath of material
We assessed VSS efficiency with checks concentrated of material bandwidth and extend, failover instances, and unicast/multicast performance throughout a network spine.
within the fabric checks they sought to reply two basic questions: How fast does VSS stream frames, and the way long does it hold on to each and every frame? The setup for this check turned into the rest but basic. They connected Spirent ExamCenter
analyzer/generator modules to 130 10G Ethernet ports on two Catalyst 6509 chassis configured as one digital change.
These checks produced, by means of a long way, the optimum throughput we’ve ever measured from a single (logical) gadget. When forwarding 64-byte frames, Cisco’s digital switch moved site visitors at greater than 770 million frames per 2nd. They then ran the equal verify on a single swap, without virtualization, and measured throughput of 385 million frames per 2d — precisely half the outcomes of the two fabric combined in the digital change. These consequences prove there’s no penalty for combining change fabric.
We additionally measured VSS throughput for 256-byte frames (close to the general web body length) of 287 million frames per 2nd and for 1,518-byte frames (until these days, the optimum in Ethernet, and nonetheless the true end on most production networks) of fifty three million frames per second. With both frame sizes, throughput was precisely double that of the single-swap case.
The 1,518-byte frames per 2d number represents throughput of just about 648Gbps. here is handiest around half the theoretical maximum cost feasible with one hundred thirty 10G Ethernet ports. The limiting factor is the Supervisor 720 swap cloth, which can’t send line-expense traffic to all sixty six 10G ports in each and every entirely loaded chassis. VSS doubles cloth capacity by way of combining two switches, nevertheless it doesn’t lengthen the potential of the material card in both real switch.
We also measured lengthen for all three body sizes. With a 10% intended load, Spirent ExamCenter
said standard delays starting from 12 to 17 microseconds, each with and devoid of digital switching. These numbers are corresponding to those for other 10G switches we’ve validated, and far under the factor where they’d have an effect on performance of any utility. Even the optimum delays of round 66 microsec with digital switching once again are too low to slow down any application, mainly considering the fact that cyber web circular-trip delays commonly run into the tens of milliseconds.
Our failover exams produced a different record: The fastest healing from an Layer 2/Layer 3 network failure we’ve ever measured.
We begun these tests with a standard setup: rapid spanning tree at layer 2, HSRP at layer 3, and 16,000 hosts (emulated on Spirent TestCenter) sending site visitors across redundant pairs of access, distribution and core switches. right through the look at various, they bring to a halt vigor to probably the most distribution switches, forcing all redundancy mechanisms and routing protocols to reconverge. restoration took 6.883 seconds in this setup.
Then they reran the equal examine two extra times with VSS enabled. This time convergence came about a good deal quicker. It took the community simply 322 millisec to converge with virtual switching on the distribution switches, and 341 millisec to converge with virtual switching on the core and distribution switches. both numbers represent more advantageous than 20fold advancements over the commonplace redundancy mechanisms.
an even bigger backbone
Our final assessments measured backbone performance using a posh business traffic pattern involving 176,000 unicast routes, greater than 10,000 multicast routes, and more than 5.6 billion flows. They ran these exams with unicast site visitors by myself and a mix of unicast and multicast flows, and again compared effects with and without VSS in area.
just to hold things wonderful, they ran all assessments with a 10,000-entry entry control listing in region, and also configured switches to re-mark all packets’ diff-serv code element (DSCP) fields. Re-marking DSCPs prevents users from unauthorized “promotion” of their packets to acquire bigger-priority remedy. in addition, they enabled NetFlow monitoring for all look at various traffic.
Throughput in the entire backbone cases become precisely double with digital switching than with out it. This become authentic for both unicast and blended-class throughput tests, and also true inspite of even if they enabled virtual switching on distribution switches alone, or on each the core and distribution switches. These results evidently exhibit the merits of an “lively/active” design over an “energetic/passive” one.
We measured extend in addition to throughput in these checks. Ideally, we’d predict to see little change between test situations with and with out virtual switching, and between cases with virtual switching at one or two layers within the community. When it came to regular prolong, that’s fairly tons how things regarded. Delays across three pairs of physical switches ranged from round 26 to 90 microsec in all look at various cases, smartly below the element the place purposes would be aware.
highest delays did differ a little with digital switching enabled, however no longer through a margin that would have an effect on utility efficiency. Curiously, highest extend accelerated essentially the most for 256-byte frames, with fourfold raises over outcomes with out virtual switching. The precise quantities have been always well less than 1 millisec, and additionally not going to have an effect on software performance.
Cisco’s VSS is a major development within the state of the switching artwork. It dramatically improves availability with a whole lot quicker recovery times, while simultaneously featuring a big boost in bandwidth.
How they proven Cisco’s VSS
We assessed VSS efficiency with three sets of checks measuring fabric bandwidth and lengthen, failover instances, and unicast/multicast performance across a network backbone.
For all exams described here, they configured a ten,000-line entry handle list (ACL) masking layer-3 and layer-4 standards and spot-checked that random entries within the ACL blocked site visitors as supposed. As a safeguard against users making unauthorized alterations, Cisco engineers additionally configured access and core switches to re-mark the diff-serve code element (DSCP) in every packet, and they demonstrated re-marking the use of counters in the Spirent ExamCenter
traffic generator/analyzer. Cisco additionally enabled NetFlow traffic monitoring for all verify site visitors. To verify the material bandwidth and delay, the gadget below test was one pair of Cisco Catalyst 6509-E switches. Cisco engineers installation a virtual switch hyperlink (VSL) between the switches, every equipped with eight WS6408 10G Ethernet line cards and one digital Switching Supervisor 720-10G administration/change cloth card. That left a total of one hundred thirty 10G Ethernet examine ports: Eight on every of the road playing cards, plus one on every of the administration cards (we used the administration card’s different 10G Ethernet port to installation the virtual hyperlink between switches).
the usage of the Spirent ExamCenter
site visitors generator/analyzer, they provided sixty four-, 256- and 1518-byte IPv4 unicast frames on each of the one hundred thirty 10G test ports to check throughput and lengthen. They measured prolong at 10% of line rate, in keeping with their apply in outdated 10G Ethernet change exams. The Spirent ExamCenter
analyzer emulated 100 exciting hosts on each and every port, making for 13,000 complete hosts.
within the failover checks, the aim became to evaluate VSS recuperation time upon loss of a change with recuperation using older redundancy mechanisms.
This check thinking
three pairs of Catalyst 6509 switches, representing the core, distribution and access layers of an enterprise community. They ran the failover assessments in three configurations. in the first situation, they used legacy redundancy mechanisms similar to fast spanning tree and sizzling standby routing protocol (HSRP). Then they ran two failover eventualities the use of VSS, first with a virtual link on the distribution switches alone, and again with VSS hyperlinks on both the distribution and core switches.
For each and every look at various, they begun by means of providing site visitors to every of 16 interfaces on the core and entry facets of the examine bed. They begun the failover tests with a baseline adventure to examine no frame loss existed. while Spirent ExamCenter
provided test traffic for 300 seconds, they cut off vigour to one of the vital distribution switches. as a result of they provided site visitors to every interface at a rate of a hundred,000 frames per second, each and every dropped frame represented 10 microsec of restoration time. So, as an instance, if Spirent ExamCenter
mentioned 32,000 misplaced frames, then failover time turned into 320 millisec.
The backbone efficiency assessments used a setup akin to the VSS configurations in the failover assessments. here again, there have been three pairs of Catalyst 6509 switches, representing core, distribution and access layers of an commercial enterprise network. right here once more, they additionally conducted separate checks with a digital hyperlink on the distribution switches, and once more with digital links on the distribution and core switches.
To characterize enterprise conditions, they installation very massive numbers of routes, hosts and flows in these tests. From the core aspect, they configured Open Shortest course First to advertise 176,000 wonderful routes. On the entry side, they set up four virtual LANs (VLAN), every with 250 hosts, on each of 16 ports, for 16,000 hosts complete. in terms of multicast traffic setup, one host in each and every access-facet VLAN joined each and every of 40 companies, each and every of which had 16 transmitters; with sixteen core-side interfaces. In all, this test represented greater than 10,000 multicast routes, and greater than 5.6 billion pleasing unicast flows.
within the spine tests, they used a partially meshed traffic pattern to measure gadget throughput and delay. As described in RFC 2285, a partial mesh pattern is one during which ports on each side of the check bed alternate site visitors with one an additional, but not among themselves. in this case, that meant all entry ports exchanged site visitors with all core ports, and vice-versa.
all four combinations of unicast, blended multicast/unicast, and virtual switching enabled and disabled on the core switches (virtual switching become always enabled on the distribution switches and at all times disabled on the access switches). In all four backbone verify setups, they measured throughput and delay.
We conducted these checks in an engineering lab at Cisco’s campus in San Jose. this is a departure from their standard process of trying out in their own labs or at a neutral third-celebration facility. The change was borne of logistical necessity: Cisco’s lab changed into the only 1 obtainable within the distributed timeframe with enough 10G Ethernet verify ports and electrical vigour to conduct this look at various. network examine and Spirent engineers conducted all tests and proven configurations of each switches and test gadgets, just as they would in any examine. The consequences presented here would be the same even with the place the check became carried out.
Newman is president of community verify, an unbiased verify lab in Westlake Village, Calif. He can also be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Newman is additionally a member of the community World Lab Alliance, a cooperative of the premier reviewers in the network industry each bringing to undergo years of useful experience on each evaluation. For extra Lab Alliance assistance, together with what it takes to turn into a member, go to www.networkworld.com/alliance.
because of Spirent Communications for its guide of this mission. Spirent look at various engineer Brooks Hickman supplied on-web page configuration and troubleshooting suggestions for these assessments.