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Apple Integration dumps

Debounce Code – One post To Rule all of them | 9L0-407 Practice Questions and Free test PDF

closing month they asked you to ship on your debounce code. You didn’t disappoint and it’s time to share the code got. there were some tenet for sending in code so in case you don’t see yours right here, it probably didn’t observe the suggestions, sorry. They also tried to weed out code that using extend loops for debounce. These tend to be a bad option to handle inputs as a result of they monopolize the processor.

We desired to add upvote/downvote buttons to each and every set of code to provide some theory of a group consensus on code high-quality but there’s no decent device available for distinct up/down vote widgets on one wordpress web page. This consequences in a huge code dump for any one person to go through. in case you’ve got any concepts on the way to more suitable organize this tell us: debounce@hackaday.com.

We make no ensures that this code is secure to use, or that it even works. verify it carefully earlier than the use of for critical initiatives.

be part of us after the smash for a whirlwind of code examples.

Ned’s Debounce Code

Ned despatched in a kit of debounce code that screens distinctive buttons, debounces them, and detects button dangle and unencumber.


/***************************************************************************************** * mission: Button Code * edition: V1.0 * client: ProTechNZ * Date Created: 22/07/2010 * Date Modified: 23/07/2010 * writer: Neil van Geffen * company: ProTech NZ * Micro: ATMega128 * pace: 8MHz * Clock source: inside *****************************************************************************************/ /************************* Defines *******************************************************/ #include <io.h> #include <stdlib.h> #consist of <string.h> #encompass <prolong.h> #consist of "NedsStandardHeader.h" #include "C info\buttons.h" #outline BTN_UP 0x01 #define BTN_DOWN 0x02 #outline BTN_ENTER 0x04 #define BTN_CLEAR 0x08 /************************* Structs and Enums *********************************************/ /************************* characteristic Prototypes *******************************************/ unsigned char TimeYet(unsigned int time); unsigned int TimeDiff(unsigned int past, unsigned int future); void USART0SendByte(unsigned char byteToSend); void USART1SendByte(unsigned char byteToSend); void USART0SendArray(unsigned char *array, unsigned char noOfBytes); void USART0SendString(unsigned char *string); void USART0SendStringF(flash unsigned char *string); /************************* international Variables***********************************************/ unsigned char tempByte; unsigned int tempWord; unsigned char pA, pB, workstation, pD; unsigned char releaseCounter; unstable unsigned int isrTime; unsigned int currentTime; unsigned int timeButtons; unsigned int clearPressed; /************************* Setup Code ****************************************************/ void SetupPorts (void) PORTA = 0x00; PORTB = 0x00; PORTC = 0x00; PORTD = 0x04; // RXD1 (2) PORTE = 0x01; // RXD0 (0) PORTF = 0x00; DDRA = 0xF0; DDRB = 0xFF; DDRC = 0xFF; DDRD = 0xFF; // TXD1 (three) DDRE = 0x02; // TXD0 (1) DDRF = 0xFF; // 1mS timer void SetupTimers (void) (0 << CS01) /************************* leading Code *****************************************************/ void main(void) SetupPorts(); SetupTimers(); SREG.7 = 1; whereas (1) SREG.7 = 0; // Atomic Time maintaining currentTime = isrTime; SREG.7 = 1; computing device &= 0x07; // preserve notebook to a max of seven pD &= 0x07; // retain pD to a max of 7 PORTB = btnStatus.lastCount; // output variety of buttons pressed to LEDs on PortB PORTC = (0x80 >> computer); // output a counter to PortC PORTD = (0x80 >> pD); // output a counter to PortD if (TimeYet(timeButtons)) // Time to run this little bit of code yet timeButtons += 5; // Set the subsequent time to 5mS away (may also be any cost definitely) UpdateButtons(currentTime); // update the buttons if (buttons.held) // If any button is held PORTF &= 0x0F; // clear the high nibble off PortF PORTF if (buttons.pressed) = buttons.pressed; // and set the existing puttons held to the low nibble clearPressed = currentTime + 200; // set the clearPressed time to 200ms to get it to clear the LEDs after 200ms change (buttons.pressed) // do something depending on what buttons are pressed case BTN_UP: pD++; destroy; case BTN_DOWN: pD--; spoil; case BTN_ENTER: notebook++; damage; case BTN_CLEAR: laptop--; smash; default: pB++; buttons.pressed = 0; // clear the buttons pressed flags if (buttons.released) = (releaseCounter << four); // and set what buttons had been launched to tht PortA LEDs switch (buttons.launched) // do something on a button unencumber case BTN_UP: pD = 0; destroy; case BTN_DOWN: pD = 7; break; case BTN_ENTER: pc = 0; ruin; case BTN_CLEAR: computer = 7; smash; default: pB++; buttons.launched = 0; // clear the button released flags if (TimeYet(clearPressed)) // if they should still clear the LEDs clearPressed = currentTime; // stop the time from wrapping-over PORTF = 0x00; // clear the LEDs /************************* capabilities *****************************************************/ unsigned char TimeYet(unsigned int time) if (((time - 1) - currentTime) > 0xF000) // if the time has handed (will roll round when now not serviced for 4095 counts) return 1; // the time has handed else return 0; // or else it has not yet passed /************************* Interrupts ****************************************************/ interrupt [TIM0_COMP] void TimerZeroCompare (void) isrTime++; // keep Time


/************************************* delivery OF LIBRARY feedback ******************************* * Library identify: Neds Button Code * edition: V1.0 * Created: 22/07/10 * final Mod: 23/07/10 * CV edition: 2.04.8a * creator: Neil van Geffen * company: ProTechNZ * intention: examine 4 buttons and return button presses, helds and releases. ************************************************************************************************/ /************************************* popular BUGS ********************************************** * ************************************************************************************************/ /************************************* NOTES *************************************************** * The code will decode the button presses into presses, holds and releases. * A press is a press AND free up before a hang is registered * A dangle is a press held lengthy ample to register as a hang. * A dangle will immediately repeat itself at an increasing rate ************************************************************************************************/ #define BUTTONS (PINA & 0x0F) // Make the buttons the decrease nibble lively high (use ~ to get energetic low buttons to appear as energetic high) #define REPEAT_MAX 250 // The delivery cost of repeat debouncing when first urgent a button #define REPEAT_MIN 25 // the lowest price of repeat debouncing when first keeping a button #outline SPEED_SHIFT three // The repeat cost decreases through the existing repeat price >> by means of this cost (aka four capability it decreases with the aid of 1/16th each time) #outline DEBOUNCE_PRESS 25 // The debounce for a single press #outline DEBOUNCE_HOLD 600 // The debounce for a button grasp struct unsigned int pressed:four; // holds which buttons have been pressed and launched unsigned int held:four; // holds which buttons had been held for greater than DEBOUNCE_HOLD unsigned int released:4; // holds which buttons were released after a button changed into held buttons; #pragma used+ /***** UpdateButtons * read four buttons (described as BUTTONS above) * and retailer them to the buttons struct. * greatest if referred to as on a regulat groundwork like every 10mS. * Calling extra regularly will provide more advantageous decision on button presses. ---------- * @param - curretTime, the latest time to compare the last press too to calculate debounce and press held length *****/ void UpdateButtons(unsigned int currentTime); #pragma used- #encompass "buttons.c"


/************************************* birth OF LIBRARY comments ******************************* * Library name: Neds Button Code * edition: V1.0 * Created: 22/07/10 * last Mod: 23/07/10 * CV version: 2.04.8a * creator: Neil van Geffen * enterprise: ProTechNZ * intention: study four buttons and return button presses, helds and releases. ************************************************************************************************/ /************************************* common BUGS ********************************************** * ************************************************************************************************/ /************************************* NOTES *************************************************** * ************************************************************************************************/ #define BUTTON_COUNT ((BUTTONS && (BUTTONS & (1 << 0))) + (BUTTONS && (BUTTONS & (1 << 1))) + (BUTTONS && (BUTTONS & (1 << 2))) + (BUTTONS && (BUTTONS & (1 << 3)))) #warning through compiling Neds button code, you well known he's the person! struct unsigned char heldFlag:1; // used by means of neds code, on no account trade unsigned char decreaseFlag:1; // used by way of neds code, not ever change unsigned char lastStatus:four; // used through neds code, in no way alternate. The last legitimate combination of buttons pressed unsigned char lastCount:4; // used with the aid of neds code, by no means change. The number of buttons held at one time unsigned int time; // used by means of neds code, not ever alternate. The time the button press was modified unsigned int repeat; // used by means of neds code, certainly not trade. The time between button held repeats btnStatus; unsigned int TimeDiff(unsigned int previous, unsigned int future) if (((future - 1) - past) > 0xF000) return 0; else return future - previous; void UpdateButtons(unsigned int currentTime) if (TimeDiff(btnStatus.time, currentTime) >= DEBOUNCE_HOLD) // If a button has been held if (btnStatus.decreaseFlag) // if the button count number become diminished earlier however they have remained the equal for the size of a hold time btnStatus.decreaseFlag = FALSE; // clear the flag that states it became decreased btnStatus.lastStatus = BUTTONS; // and set the button fame to the at the moment pressed buttons buttons.held = btnStatus.lastStatus; // Set what buttons have been held btnStatus.time += btnStatus.repeat; // and set the time to repeat the subsequent press btnStatus.repeat = MAX(REPEAT_MIN, btnStatus.repeat - MAX(1,(btnStatus.repeat >> SPEED_SHIFT))); // and lessen the repeat price to raise the button held repeat fee btnStatus.heldFlag = authentic; // and set the flag that states a button turned into held if (!BUTTONS) if (btnStatus.heldFlag) // If the buttons were prior to now held btnStatus.heldFlag = FALSE; // Clear the flag so it doesnt set buttons pressed continously buttons.launched = btnStatus.lastStatus; // Set what buttons had been pressed up to now else if (TimeDiff(btnStatus.time, currentTime) >= DEBOUNCE_PRESS) // but when the buttons werent held, but pressed for long satisfactory to flow as a debounce buttons.pressed = btnStatus.lastStatus; // Set what buttons were pressed btnStatus.lastCount = 0; // Clear the last count btnStatus.lastStatus = 0; // Clear the remaining popularity btnStatus.time = currentTime; // clear the closing press time else if (BUTTON_COUNT > btnStatus.lastCount) // if the number of buttons pressed has changed btnStatus.lastCount = BUTTON_COUNT; // save it for subsequent time. btnStatus.lastStatus = BUTTONS; // and save what buttons were pressed. btnStatus.decreaseFlag = FALSE; // clear the flag that says the button presses simply reduced. btnStatus.time = currentTime; // reset the time of last button presses. btnStatus.repeat = REPEAT_MAX; // and reset the time between held repeats. else if (BUTTON_COUNT && (BUTTON_COUNT < btnStatus.lastCount)) // Or if the button count deceased however a button is still pressed btnStatus.lastCount = BUTTON_COUNT; // store the count number for next time btnStatus.decreaseFlag = true; // set the flag to say this took place btnStatus.time = currentTime; // reset the time of remaining button presses. btnStatus.repeat = REPEAT_MAX; // and reset the time between held repeats. else if (!btnStatus.decreaseFlag && (BUTTONS != btnStatus.lastStatus)) // If someone changed button presses but not the count btnStatus.lastCount = 0; // drive the count to exchange subsequent time around so the code to set instances and so forth isnt in 2 locations. // here is a reasonably unnecessary little bit of code if the carrier time is under 10mS and in spite of the fact that its more, it may not be all that usefull. S1axter’s Debounce Code

Developed for PIC24 chips, this code repeatedly calls a feature to check a pin state.


////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // // Pin I/O manage module - Header // // Language: Microchip C30 // // File: pin_io.h // author: MyBitBox.com/Geeksinside.com // Created: 08/23/09 // ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// #ifndef __PIN_IO_H__ #define __PIN_IO_H__ void pin_io_init(void); void pin_input_check(void); #endif


////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // // Pin I/O handle module // // Language: Microchip C30 // // File: pin_io.c // writer: MyBitBox.com/Geeksinside.com // Created: 08/23/09 // ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// typedef struct uint16 masks; uint16 last_state; uint8 changed; pin_check_struct; pin_check_struct inputA, inputB; //==================================================================================== // installation the pins //==================================================================================== void pin_io_init(void) inputA.changed = FALSE; inputA.last_state = FALSE; inputA.masks = BMASK(2); // examine PORTB2 inputB.modified = FALSE; inputB.last_state = FALSE; inputB.mask = BMASK(four); // analyze PORTB4 return; //==================================================================================== // here is the debounce movements. When here is known as it assessments for consistant pin states //==================================================================================== void pin_input_check(void) uint16 portb_snapshot = PORTB; // here's for the XXXXX enter // ------------------------------------------------------ if(inputA.changed == real) if(!((portb_snapshot ^ inputA.last_state)&inputA.masks)) // If the road become changed last time, and it is the same state as ultimate // time, then they should lock it in right here (If the bits are not the same then this activities // may be called once again and the proper cost should be locked in) if(portb_snapshot & inputA.mask) // do that when the road goes high SYS_STATUS.FLAG_XXXXX_LINE = true; else // try this when the road goes low SYS_STATUS.FLAG_XXXXX_LINE = FALSE; // Clear the modified flag inputA.changed = FALSE; // masks out any changed enter pins inputA.modified = ((inputA.last_state ^ (portb_snapshot & inputA.masks))>0); // XOR with ultimate last_state to discover changed pins inputA.last_state = portb_snapshot & inputA.masks; // here's for the YYYYY enter // ------------------------------------------------------ if(inputB.modified == real) if(!((portb_snapshot ^ inputB.last_state)&inputB.masks)) // If the line become changed last time, and it is a similar state as remaining // time, then they deserve to lock it in right here (If the bits don't seem to be the identical then this routine // may be called again and the relevant price should be locked in) if(portb_snapshot & inputB.mask) // do this when the road goes high SYS_STATUS.FLAG_YYYYY_LINE = real; else // try this when the road goes low SYS_STATUS.FLAG_YYYYY_LINE = FALSE; // Clear the changed flag inputB.changed = FALSE; // mask out any modified enter pins inputB.modified = ((inputB.last_state ^ (portb_snapshot & inputB.masks))>0); // XOR with remaining last_state to find modified pins inputB.last_state = portb_snapshot & inputB.masks; return; //conclusion Aaron Keith’s Debounce Code

This code is adapted for an 8051 processor.


/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10/14/2010: Button debounce code via Aaron Keith This code detects and debounces button presses. It is adapted to be used with 8051 micro controllers. Complied on the ride 51 Complier The interrupt carrier movements (ISR) runs 3600 instances per 2nd. If the button is pressed (the pin is connected to GND) Key_Hit is incremented to the highest 255. When the button is released Key_Hit will decremented to 0. Long_Key_Hit will increment extra slowly and is used to notice the button being help down. --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ #consist of<reg51.h> #define genuine 1 #define FALSE 0 //define pins used by using buttons at 0x97 sbit P1_7 ; #define BUTTON P1_7 //Button on Port 1.7 //De leap variables unsigned char Key_Hit; unsigned char Long_Key_Hit; /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prototypes --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ void init_timers(void); /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- FUNC: - sets and starts a gadget timer PARAMS: NONE RETURNS: NONE --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ void init_timers(void) // the usage of a 11.0592 Mhz Clock TMOD = 0x02; //T0 mode 2 eight bit reload // Timer 0 is system tick TH0 = 0x00; // Reload = 256, giving 921600/256=3600 TL0 = 0x00; ET0 = proper; // enable interrupt on timer 0 TR0 = actual; // start timer 0; EA = actual; /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- FUNC: - leading --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ void leading(void) init_timers(); //start the timer for (;;) //loop forever if (Key_Hit == 0xff) //Key press detected. Do something here if (Key_Hit == 0x00) //Key unencumber detected. Do whatever thing here if (Long_Key_Hit == 0xff) //Key press and assist down. Do whatever here /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- INTERRUPT: // The procedure runs 3600 times per second --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ void Timer0_interrupt(void) interrupt 1 static unsigned char Div18Counter = 0; if (BUTTON) // Button up (Pin is related to VCC) if (Key_Hit != 0) // Will on no account go under zero Key_Hit--; else // Button down (Pin is related to GND) if (Key_Hit != 0xff) // Will certainly not go above 255 Key_Hit++; if (++Div18Counter >= 18) // run ever 5 mSec Div18Counter = 0; if (Key_Hit == 0xff) if (Long_Key_Hit != 0xff) Long_Key_Hit++; else if (Key_Hit == 0x00) // No prolong when detecting key release. Long_Key_Hit = 0x00; Thomas Flayols’ Debounce Code

This code creates a software-based low-flow filter by means of taking a moving ordinary of the pin price.

// hello, to prevent contact bounce, my answer is to create application low flow filter through the use of a relocating general...(no extend answer) see the jpg to see what's turn up // input is the button enter pin(0if no longer pressed, 1 if pressed) main(void) unsigned char button = 0; while(1) // your code right here... button=(button * 9+input * 10)/10; // do a moving usual of the digital enter... outcomes button between 0 and 10 if (button > 5) //the button is ON else //the button is OFF Ganesh Krishna’s Debounce Code

can also be scaled to any variety of buttons, pattern price is configurable, and this goals to use as little RAM as viable


#consist of <htc.h> /* Scalable application debounce for buttons * * this is short implementation of application debounce with as little RAM as viable. * stress is given to scalability of variety of buttons * and scalability of number of samples per debounce cycle. * * whereas this file is written for PIC Microcontroller and hello-tech compiler, * the debounce characteristic itself is just C, and never hardware dependant. * * Use the features at your personal chance * creator: ganesh.ksm@gmail.com * * expect BSD like license. * well known with an electronic mail if it really works for you. * */ /*variety of buttons within the equipment*/ #define MAX_BUTTONS four /* MAJORITY_VOTE variety of samples for which the button have to stay in pressed state * to believe that the button is pressed. * */ #define MAJORITY_VOTE 5 /* STABILITY_BITS is the number of remaining samples (last few samples on the conclusion of debounce) * after which they accept as true with the enter stable * */ #outline STABILITY_BITS 2 /* Convert steadiness bits to somewhat mask, i.e STABILITY_MASK has STABILITY_BITS bits set in its LSB * */ #define STABILITY_MASK ((1<<STABILITY_BITS) - 1) /*This variable contains the debounced repute of all buttons at any aspect of time */ risky unsigned int debounced_buttons; /* Reads port pins and returns 1 if button is active (assumed lively low) * returns 0 if inactive. Microchip PIC18 certain. * */ unsigned char Read_Portbit(int button) change(button) case 0: return !RA0; case 1: return !RA1; case 2: return !RA2; case 3: return !RA3; /* function: button_is_pressed() * Argument: Takes the button quantity as argument, an index into the array of buttons. * Returns: non zero if the button of hobby is pressed for majority time of polling * returns zero if no longer pressed, debouncing no longer finished, * button bouced lower back to unpressed state * * Calling cost: This characteristic will return fantastic simplest after MAJORITY_VOTE is achieved * instances with equal button argument for debounce of one button. * where X is the number of samples per debounce, * * is dependent upon: Read_Portbit(button) which returns 1 if the pin of button of hobby is active and nil if no longer. */ char button_is_pressed( unsigned char button) unsigned int bit_count=0, temp; /* button_bits[] is an array to hold the old states of the port pin cost * each and every point holds the previous samples of teh button examine. * They need as many facets as there are buttons. * Make this an integer array if more than 8 samples are crucial for debounce choice. * if less samples are mandatory adjust the MAJORITY_VOTE and STABILITY_BITS to a smaller quantity * */ unstable static unsigned char button_bits[MAX_BUTTONS]; /* Shift the existing examine button fame into the que * they may still have the latest trial in LSB and older samples * higher up.*/ button_bits[button]=button_bits[button]<<1 /* call at a fee about 8 instances greater than the rate at which input detection is required * specific frequency is dependent upon the number of samples required per debounce. */ void Service_user_Input(void) int i; for (i=0;i<MAX_BUTTONS;i++) if (button_is_pressed(i)) debounced_buttons = debounced_buttons void leading (void) /*PIC18 certain intialization of timer interrupt*/ GIE=1; PEIE=1; TMR0IE=1; T0CON= 0X48; //16 bit timer devoid of Prescaler for interrupts TMR0L=0xFA; TMR0H=0xFF; TMR0ON=1; TRISA = 0xFF; // PORTA is input. /*software code starts right here*/ while(1) /*Do some thing usefull with debounced_buttons*/ void interrupt User_Input() TMR0L=0x00; /*now not in fact vital, but lets be explicit*/ TMR0H=0x00; TMR0ON=1; Service_user_Input(); /*you may decide to call this in an timed characteristic basically thread too*/ Kenneth Kuhn’s Debounce Code

[Chad] has been the use of a modified version of [Kenneth Kuhn’s] debounce code for some time now. Small, speedy, and neatly commented, it makes use of an integrator algorithm.


/****************************************************************************** debounce.c written by way of Kenneth A. Kuhn version 1.00 here's an algorithm that debounces or removes random or spurious transistions of a digital signal read as an input via a pc. here's primarily relevant when the input is from a mechanical contact. An integrator is used to function a time hysterisis so that the sign should persistantly be in a logical state (0 or 1) to ensure that the output to changeto that state. Random transitions of the enter will not affect the output apart from within the rare case the place statistical clustering is longer than the targeted integration time. the following illustration illustrates how this algorithm works. The serieslabeled, real signal, represents the precise intended sign without a noise. The sequence labeled, corrupted, has massive random transitions brought to the true signal. The sequence labled, integrator, represents the algorithmintegrator which is restrained to be between 0 and 3. The sequence labeled, output, handiest makes a transition when the integrator reaches both 0 or 3. be aware that the output signal lags the enter signal with the aid of the combination time however is free of spurious transitions. real signal 0000111111110000000111111100000000011111111110000000000111111100000 corrupted 0100111011011001000011011010001001011100101111000100010111011100010 integrator 0100123233233212100012123232101001012321212333210100010123233321010 output 0000001111111111100000001111100000000111111111110000000001111111000 I actually have been the use of this algorithm for years and that i display it right here as a code fragment in C. The algorithm has been around for a long time however does not appearto be greatly common. once in a infrequent while it's published in a tech be aware. It is awesome that the algorithm uses integration as adversarial to area common sense (differentiation). it's the integration that makes this algorithm so physically powerfulin the presence of noise. ******************************************************************************/ /* the following parameters tune the algorithm to fit the selected application. The illustration numbers are for a case the place a computer samples a mechanical contact 10 times a 2nd and a half-2nd integration time is used to eliminate soar. observe: DEBOUNCE_TIME is in seconds and SAMPLE_FREQUENCY is in Hertz */ #define DEBOUNCE_TIME 0.three #outline SAMPLE_FREQUENCY 10 #define maximum (DEBOUNCE_TIME * SAMPLE_FREQUENCY) /* These are the variables used */ unsigned int enter; /* 0 or 1 depending on the enter sign */ unsigned int integrator; /* Will range from 0 to the targeted highest */ unsigned int output; /* Cleaned-up version of the input sign */ /* Step 1: update the integrator in response to the input signal. notice that the integrator follows the input, decreasing or expanding against the boundaries as determined via the input state (0 or 1). */ if (enter == 0) if (integrator > 0) integrator--; else if (integrator < maximum) integrator++; /* Step 2: update the output state in keeping with the integrator. word that the output will simplest exchange states if the integrator has reached a restrict, either 0 or highest. */ if (integrator == 0) output = 0; else if (integrator >= highest) output = 1; integrator = highest; /* defensive code if integrator acquired corrupted */ /********************************************************* end of debounce.c */ Ubi de Feo’s Debounce Code

Arduino sketch to debounce pins from an array.

#define ARRAY_SIZE eight // array of pins to be debounced short pinsToDebounce[]= 2,three,4,5,6,7,eight,9 ; // array of pin state int swStates[]= 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0; // array of previous pin state int swPrevStates[]= 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0; // array to shop the exact state throughout debounce int swDebouncedStates[]= 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0; // array to store the previous state throughout debounce int swPrevDebounceStates[]=0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0; // time to debounce int debounceDelay=100; // array of old times the pin has been checked long prevTimes[]= 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0; void setup() Serial.start(9600); initSwitches(); void loop() readSwitches(); void initSwitches() for(int i=0;i<ARRAY_SIZE;i++) pinMode(pinsToDebounce[i],enter); void readSwitches() // Serial.print("active change set "); // Serial.println((int)activeSwitchSet); for(brief sw=0;sw<ARRAY_SIZE;sw++) risky int pin=pinsToDebounce[sw]; unstable int mpPin=pin; unstable int pinPosition=sw; swStates[pinPosition]=digitalRead(pin); debouncePins(); checkStateChange(); void debouncePins() risky long _millis=millis(); for(brief sw=0;sw<ARRAY_SIZE;sw++) if(swStates[sw]!=swPrevStates[sw]) prevTimes[sw]=_millis; if(_millis-prevTimes[sw]>debounceDelay) prevTimes[sw]=_millis; swDebouncedStates[sw]=swStates[sw]; /* Serial.print("button "); Serial.print(sw); Serial.print(" is "); Serial.println(swDebouncedStates[sw]); */ swPrevStates[sw]=swStates[sw]; void checkStateChange() for(brief sw=0;sw<5;sw++) if(swPrevDebounceStates[sw]!=swDebouncedStates[sw]) /* Serial.println(""); Serial.print("button "); Serial.print(sw); Serial.print(" "); Serial.println(swDebouncedStates[sw]); */ if(swDebouncedStates[sw]==1) pinActive(sw); if(swDebouncedStates[sw]==0) pinInactive(sw); swPrevDebounceStates[sw]=swDebouncedStates[sw]; void printDebStates() Serial.println("%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%"); for(int i=0;i<ARRAY_SIZE;i++) Serial.print(swDebouncedStates[i]); Serial.print('*'); Serial.println(""); void pinActive(int _id) Serial.print("active pin "); Serial.println(pinsToDebounce[_id]); void pinInactive(int _id) Serial.print("inactive pin "); Serial.println(pinsToDebounce[_id]); Christoph Gommel’s Debounce Code

Debouncing and scanning a keyboard matrix with an STM32 ARM processor.

/* keyboard.c Used on an STM32F103 in a instant faraway handle (C) 2010 Christoph Gommel <chg@contronix.de> Contronix GmbH, Nizzastr. 6, 01445 Radebeul, Germany Tags: matrix, keyboard, stm32, stm32f103, debounce, hackaday */ #encompass "stm32f10x.h" #include "keyboard.h" #consist of "fifo.h" #define KEYBOARD_GPIO (GPIOA) // Cols and rows are intentionally positioned within the correct order enabling the bit transferring trick used. #define COL1 (GPIO_Pin_1) #outline COL2 (GPIO_Pin_2) #outline COL3 (GPIO_Pin_3) #define COLS (COL1|COL2|COL3) #define ROW1 (GPIO_Pin_4) #outline ROW2 (GPIO_Pin_5) #outline ROW3 (GPIO_Pin_6) #outline ROW4 (GPIO_Pin_7) #outline ROW5 (GPIO_Pin_8) #outline ROWS (ROW1|ROW2|ROW3|ROW4|ROW5) //#define ROWS_B (ROW5) #outline ColNum (3) #outline RowNum (5) #define ColStart (1) #outline RowStart (4) //Very effective macro to increment and modulo in a single guide #outline incmod(n,m); n=((n+1)%m); // yes, we've a shift key too #define SHIFT (GPIO_Pin_0) GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStructure; #define KeyBufferSize (20) //risky unsigned char keypad_queue_buffer[KeyBufferSize]; static char keypad_queue_buffer[KeyBufferSize]; fifo_t keyfifo; void keyboard_init(void) SHIFT; GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_2MHz; GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_IPU; GPIO_Init(KEYBOARD_GPIO, &GPIO_InitStructure); GPIO_SetBits(KEYBOARD_GPIO, ROWS); volatile unsigned int CurrentRow = 0; risky unsigned int lastScan = 0; risky unsigned int thisScan = 0; unstable unsigned int debounceCnt; unstable unsigned int numberOfKeys; risky unsigned int thisScancode; risky unsigned int lastScancode; //Adapt this to you wishes #define debounceMax (10) //here piece of code may be known as each 10 ms from a systick interrupt void keyboard_scan(void) (scan << (ColNum * RowNum))) >> ColNum; //liberate existing Row GPIO_SetBits(KEYBOARD_GPIO, 1 << (CurrentRow + RowStart)); incmod(CurrentRow,RowNum); //prepare next Row GPIO_ResetBits(KEYBOARD_GPIO, 1 << (CurrentRow + RowStart)); if (0 == CurrentRow) //some thing changed, let's reset the debounce counter if (thisScan != lastScan) debounceCnt = 0; //...or boost if nothing modified else if (debounceCnt < debounceMax) debounceCnt++; //... if the threshold is reached if (debounceCnt == debounceMax) numberOfKeys = 0; int i; //count the variety of keys pressed and mark the position of the set bit in "thisScancode" for (i = 0; i < (ColNum * RowNum); i++) if (thisScan & (1 << i)) numberOfKeys++; thisScancode = i + 1; //ignore distinctive key presses... if (1 != numberOfKeys) thisScancode = 0; else //.. apart from the shift key which is not part of the matrix if (keyboard_getshift()) thisScancode lastScancode = thisScancode; //Now they must do the processing as a result of they get some freshly debounced condition, baby! //currentKey=((thisScan^oldScan)&thisScan); //oldScan=thisScan; lastScan = thisScan; thisScan = 0; //it's it, individuals ;) Dean corridor’s Debounce Code

Debouncing a pin interrupt on AVR microcontrollers

/* * trial debouncing code * * Copyright 2010 Dean hall. * This code snippet is obtainable beneath the MIT license: * http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.html */ /* * The hardware is an AVR with a change related to the INT0 enter. * The firmware uses: * * - AVR Libc: http://www.nongnu.org/avr-libc/ * - The AvrX microkernel: http://www.barello.web/avrx/ * * This trial code performs debouncing on the INT0 input. * here is the expected sequence of movements: * * - The AVR may also be doing anything else (wakeful or asleep) when the button is pressed * - The button press produces a low-going signal and bounces for a time * - The low-going signal prompts the INT0 interrupt * - The INT0 carrier activities: * - Disables the INT0 interrupt so bouncing would not cause assorted IRQs * - places an AvrX message within the event queue of the inputs project * - The experience in the queue explanations the inputs_task to be scheduled, which: * - Performs the motion that the INT0 button is supposed to invoke * - begins an AvrX extend timer to allow for the button to stop bouncing * all over this delay, different AvrX initiatives may additionally run. * - After the prolong, the INT0 interrupt is re-enabled for the subsequent enter. * * in this design, the extend is especially long (1s) as a result of a really low-priced button * and no deserve to respond to fast button presses. * * The downside of this utility design is that no different enter activities are * processed whereas a button is debounced, besides the fact that children their press-messages are * queued up and handled after the debounce period. This behavior was * appropriate for this immediate design, however might also no longer be for all instances. */ #encompass <avr/interrupt.h> #consist of "avrx.h" #outline DEBOUNCE_DELAY (uint16_t)(1000 / MILLISECONDS_PER_TIC) static MessageControlBlock remote_ctrl_pressed_msg; /* far flung handle button press interrupt service pursuits */ AVRX_SIGINT(INT0_vect) IntProlog(); /* Disable INT0/RemoteCtrl interrupt */ GICR &= ~_BV(INT0); AvrXIntSendMessage(&inputs_msg_queue, &remote_ctrl_pressed_msg); Epilog(); AVRX_GCC_TASKDEF(inputs_task, TASK_STACK_SIZE, three) _BV(ISC11)); GICR Brad Basler’s Debounce Code

Debounce synchronously or asynchronously the use of an ISR. utilization is mentioned in this thread.


#ifndef __DEBOUNCE_H__ #outline __DEBOUNCE_H__ #consist of <avr/interrupt.h> //Optimized for 20 millisecond duration on a 1Mhz clock #define DBNC_TIMR0_PRESCALER _BV(CS02) #outline DBNC_TIMR0_BASEVAL 178 //Defines the size of the debouncer handler arrays (i.e. four for a maximum of four) #define DBNC_NUM_DEBOUNCERS 8 //Defines the variety of timer ticks before a worth is regarded legit //this could define a maximum debounce time of approx a hundred milliseconds @ 5 //The minimum debounce time can be approx 80 milliseconds #define DBNC_COUNTER_TOP 3 #outline _BITSHIFTBY(bit,num) ((bit)<<(num)) typedef void(*debounceHandler)(uint8_t,uint8_t); typedef struct //A pointer to a risky port (I/O or in any other case) risky uint8_t *port; //A pointer to a debounceHandler characteristic debounceHandler handler; //here is the decremental counter which determines //if the button has been debounced uint8_t counter; /* Bits 0-3: bit index to determine in opposition t (0-7) Bits 4-5: unused Bit 5: last usual sate Bit 6: Signaled Bit 7: Asynchronous */ uint8_t bitmap; DBNC_ITEM; typedef struct //An array of debouncer instruments DBNC_ITEM dbUnits[DBNC_NUM_DEBOUNCERS]; //this is set to 1 when any signal in the dbncSignaled array has been set uint8_t signalReady; DBNC_GLOBAL; /* forward Declarations */ //ISR for timer0 overflow interrupt ISR(TIMER0_OVF_vect); void callSignaledHandlers(void); void registerDebouncer(unstable uint8_t *port,uint8_t bit,uint8_t index,uint8_t Asynchronous,debounceHandler handler); void signalChangedState(uint8_t index,uint8_t counterTop); void initializeDebouncerTimer(); #endif


#encompass <avr/io.h> #encompass <avr/interrupt.h> #include <util/delay.h> #encompass "debounce.h" volatile DBNC_GLOBAL db; //ISR for timer0 overflow interrupt ISR(TIMER0_OVF_vect) uint8_t i; uint8_t temp; uint8_t workDone = 0; //Cycle via all debounced items for (i=0;i<DBNC_NUM_DEBOUNCERS;i++) //skip objects which have been idle if (db.dbUnits[i].counter == 0) proceed; workDone = 1; //If debounce duration has elapsed if (--db.dbUnits[i].counter == 0) //seize current logical bit state of the port (1 or 0) temp = (((*(db.dbUnits[i].port)) & _BV((db.dbUnits[i].bitmap & 0b111))) != 0); //If present state != final state //save exchange if (temp != ((db.dbUnits[i].bitmap & _BV(5)) >> 5)) //Flip ultimate state bit db.dbUnits[i].bitmap ^= _BV(5); //If this debouncer item is synchronous //Then signal it if (!(db.dbUnits[i].bitmap & _BV(7))) = _BV(6); //Signaling alternate options db.signalReady = 1; //otherwise it's asynchronous, //name instantly else //name Handler (*db.dbUnits[i].handler)(i,temp); //If all counters had been already 0, disable the timer if (!workDone) TCCR0B = 0; TCNT0 = DBNC_TIMR0_BASEVAL; //call any signaled handlers (to be performed in leading software loop) void callSignaledHandlers(void) int i; if (!db.signalReady) return; for (i=0;i<DBNC_NUM_DEBOUNCERS;i++) //assess if this item is signaled if (db.dbUnits[i].bitmap & _BV(6)) //if so, reset its sign db.dbUnits[i].bitmap &= ~_BV(6); //name merchandise and circulate on ultimate established state (*db.dbUnits[i].handler)(i,(db.dbUnits[i].bitmap & _BV(5))>>5); //Reset sign db.signalReady = 0; void registerDebouncer(risky uint8_t *port,uint8_t bit,uint8_t index,uint8_t Asynchronous,debounceHandler handler) bit; void signalChangedState(uint8_t index,uint8_t counterTop) if (!counterTop) db.dbUnits[index].counter = DBNC_COUNTER_TOP; else db.dbUnits[index].counter = counterTop; if (!TCCR0B) TCCR0B = DBNC_TIMR0_PRESCALER; void initializeDebouncerTimer() //be aware: would not start timer TCCR0A = 0x00; TCCR0B = 0x00; TCNT0 = DBNC_TIMR0_BASEVAL; TIMSK0 = _BV(TOIE0);


#include <avr/io.h> #encompass <util/extend.h> #encompass "debounce.h" risky uint8_t lastState; void ButtonClicker(uint8_t index,uint8_t state); /* Pin-change interrupt 0 Detects pin adjustments on PCINT0-7 (all masked on), i.e. PB0-7 on Atmega2560 It compares these values to the remaining usual state and signals a transformation on any pins that have modified state. */ ISR(PCINT0_vect) uint8_t temp = lastState^PINB; lastState = PINB; if ((temp & _BV(0))) signalChangedState(0,2); if ((temp & _BV(1))) signalChangedState(1,three); if ((temp & _BV(2))) signalChangedState(2,four); if ((temp & _BV(3))) signalChangedState(3,5); if ((temp & _BV(four))) signalChangedState(four,20); if ((temp & _BV(5))) signalChangedState(5,50); if ((temp & _BV(6))) signalChangedState(6,200); if ((temp & _BV(7))) signalChangedState(7,200); int main(void) //Initialize PORTB as all inputs, no inside pull-ups DDRB = 0x00; PORTB = 0x00; //Initialize PORTD as all outputs, all excessive (LEDs off) DDRD = 0xFF; PORTD = 0xFF; //preliminary timer setup (doesn't beginning timer) initializeDebouncerTimer(); lastState = PINB; //Fills in details involving registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB0,0,1,&ButtonClicker); registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB1,1,1,&ButtonClicker); registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB2,2,1,&ButtonClicker); registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB3,3,1,&ButtonClicker); registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB4,4,0,&ButtonClicker); registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB5,5,0,&ButtonClicker); registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB6,6,0,&ButtonClicker); registerDebouncer(&PINB,PB7,7,0,&ButtonClicker); //enable pin-alternate interrupt & masks PCICR = _BV(PCIE0); PCMSK0 = 0xFF; //permit interrupts sei(); while(1) //this could loop through any signaled debouncer gadgets and //name their handlers (does not practice to asynchronous) callSignaledHandlers(); _delay_ms(5); return 0; void ButtonClicker(uint8_t index,uint8_t state) if (state == 0) PORTD ^= _BV(index); William Dillon’s Debounce Code

uses rising and falling side detection in application to create a digital filter.

/* uint8_t doDebounce(uint8_t *state, unstable uint8_t *port, uint8_t pin) * * This feature implements the logic for detecting button transitions for * arbitrary ports and bits. The return value is the debounced value the the * given pin. * * The implementation of this feature is impressed by using the digital filter * presented in ECE573 at Oregon State college. it is distinctive because * i'm the use of the single eight-bit variable to save all of the state, instead of a * eight bit accumulator and eight bit flag. We're the use of the latitude from 0x00 -> 0x7F * and bit 7 (0x80) because the flag. * * The user of this function must supply a static state variable. This * value encodes the state and heritage of the pin Failure to retain the state * would trigger erratic conduct. The port may also be any of the PINn * memory-mapped enter buffers. Pin should be between 0 and 7. * * as a result of these buttons pull to ground, they are going to invert the which means of the sides * in application, 1 = yes is plenty more natural. */ uint8_t doDebounce(uint8_t *state, risky uint8_t *port, uint8_t pin) uint8_t historical = *state & 0x7F; uint8_t flag = (*state & 0x80)? 1 : 0; // Digital filter half, cost = (historic * .seventy five) + (new * .25) ancient -= (ancient >> 2); // 1 - (1/four) = .seventy five ancient += ((*port) & (1 << pin))? 0x1F : 0x00; // if bit set, add .25 // application schmitt set off // Newly detected rising side if ( (flag == 1) && (old > 0x70) ) flag = 0; // Newly detected falling side else if ( (flag == 0) && (old < 0x07) ) flag = 1; // replace the state variable *state = (old & 0x7F) Mike Szczys’ Debounce Code

I fell in love with the Danni Debounce code early on. here’s my retouched edition of it.

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10/13/2010: Button debounce code by using Mike Szczys in keeping with "danni debounce" code by means of Peter Dannegger: http://www.avrfreaks.internet/index.personal home page?identify=PNphpBB2&file=viewtopic&p=189356#189356 This code detects and debounces button presses. It is adapted to be used with AVR microcontrollers but I've adapted it for other architectures with no trouble and correctly. It can also be modified to use all eight bits on the identical port for as much as eight buttons. The interrupt carrier movements (ISR) on the bottom uses binary counter variables (ct0 and ct1) to assess the buttons once every 10ms except 40ms has passed. If the button registeres the primary and closing times it reads it as a keypress. There is not any performance during this code for detecting a held button. --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ // F_CPU used by using debounce to calculate 10ms interrupts #outline F_CPU 1200000 #consist of <avr/io.h> #include <avr/interrupt.h> //define pins used via buttons #define KEY_DDR DDRB #outline KEY_PORT PORTB #outline KEY_PIN PINB #outline KEY0 1 //Button on PB1 #outline KEY1 2 //Button on PB2 //Debounce variables unsigned char debounce_cnt = 0; volatile unsigned char key_press; unsigned char key_state; /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prototypes --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ unsigned char get_key_press( unsigned char key_mask ); void init_timers(void); void init_io(void); /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- FUNC: 10/13/10 - Used to read debounced button presses PARAMS: A keymask comparable to the pin for the button you with to poll RETURNS: A keymask where any excessive bits represent a button press --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ unsigned char get_key_press( unsigned char key_mask ) cli(); // read and clear atomic ! key_mask &= key_press; // read key(s) key_press ^= key_mask; // clear key(s) sei(); // permit interrupts return key_mask; /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- FUNC: 10/13/10 - sets and starts a gadget timer PARAMS: NONE RETURNS: NONE --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ void init_timers(void) = 1<<TOIE0; //allow timer overflow interrupt sei(); // permit interrupts /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- FUNC: 10/13/10 - Initialize enter and output registers PARAMS: NONE RETURNS: NONE --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ void init_io(void) = (1<<KEY0) /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------- FUNC: 10/13/10 - main --------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ int leading(void) init_timers(); //start the timer init_io(); //setup the buttons for (;;) //loop continually if( get_key_press( 1<<KEY0 )) //KEY0 press detected. Do whatever thing right here if (get_key_press( 1<<KEY1 )) //KEY1 press detected. Do something right here //-------------------------------------------------------------------------- ISR(TIM0_OVF_vect) // interrupt each 10ms = key_state & i; // 0->1: key press observe

hyperlinks to different code

Some individuals simply sent us hyperlinks to code. here they're:

[Pieter Conradie’s] matrix scanning code.

[Hernandi F. Krammes’] debounce code for PIC.

[Dave] makes use of [Jack Ganssle’s] debounce code; record 2 of this web page.

[Photo credit: Jack Ganssle]

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